The Image and Identity of Valkenburg

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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg
Bart Stevens
080120
International Tourism Management & Consultancy
NHTV, University of Applied Sciences
Breda
13 December 2012
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The image and identity of Valkenburg
Author: Bart (Jan Willem) Stevens
Student code: 080120
Student at NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences
ITMC International Tourism Management and Consultancy – bachelor degree program
13-12-2012
Breda
I hereby declare that this thesis is wholly the work of Bart Stevens.
Any other contributors or sources have either been referenced in the prescribed manner or are listed
in the acknowledgements together with the nature and the scope of their contribution.
........................................
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Acknowledgements
This thesis is the end result of my study International Tourism Management & Consultancy. I always
had an interest in travelling around the world, getting familiar with other people and cultures, as well
as nature. This naturally resulted in a study that complemented this desire to explore.
During my studies I have learned a great deal about the world, although there is of course endless
more to discover! After my ITMC program I decided to take part in the minor entrepreneurship, since
my other dream is to start up my own business in the future. For this minor I and my companion came
up with a concept related to a combination of an active life style and a burgundian lifestyle. Our
company would have been ideally located in Valkenburg; this resulted in my interest for the city. It has
a great name in the Netherlands, and is known among all generations. After careful consideration I
decided to conduct an identity and image research of Valkenburg, in order to learn more about the
tourism industry, and to see how it is perceived by others.
During the research I have had help from different people in order to make it a success. First of all I
would like to thank my supervisor from the NHTV, Geurt Drost, who helped me by guiding me through
the thesis and giving advice on how to improve my research setup. Furthermore I would like to thank
Albert van Schendel who helped me get familiar with the theories and practice of image an identity, as
well as conducting primary research and of course his own experience with research in Valkenburg.
Secondly I would like to thank John Wauben, from the municipality of Valkenburg, who helped me by
providing data and reports about the city’s industry, marketing and future plans. He also helped me by
distributing the questionnaires among the residents, which saved me a lot of time and hassle.
Furthermore I would like to thank all the interviewees, Tanya Reinards from Landal Green Parks, Bart
Kurris from Holland Casino, Nicole Schurgers from the VVV Zuid-Limburg, Ilja Castermans-Godfried
from the province of Limburg and Goof Lukken from the NHTV.
Lastly I would of course like to thank all the people that have filled in (and distributed) my
questionnaires, both residents and tourists. Without them this research could not have taken place,
and I am grateful for the time they took to help me. This also counts for the people that I have spoken
to in Valkenburg itself, to find out more about the city and its image, this includes entrepreneurs,
residents and tourists that I came across while visiting the city.
I hope you will enjoy reading this report.
Yours sincerely,
Bart Stevens
Terheijden, December 2012
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Executive summary
Valkenburg aan de Geul is a municipality in the south of Limburg. It has had a long history with tourism
and had its high times about 20-30 years ago. It is a phenomenon in the Netherlands. However the city
seems to be in decline over the past years, due to a lack of developments and innovation. As we speak
developments are taking place in order to restructure and renovate the city centre, however this is not
enough in order to bring the destination back to the top. An image and identity study could be of great
importance in order to create a stronger competitive identity and brand for the city. This report
comprehends this research on the image and identity of Valkenburg.
Research goal
To gain a clear and detailed insight into how the Dutch tourists, residents and stakeholders of
Valkenburg perceive the city as a tourism destination and a place to live in, in order to give
recommendations to the municipality of Valkenburg on how optimize their Competitive Identity.
Research questions
“What are the identity and image of the city of Valkenburg?”
1. What is place branding?
2. What are image, identity and gaps, and why are those important for tourism development?
3. What is Valkenburg as a tourism destination?
4. What is the (actual/ desired) identity of the city (municipality)?
5. How do stakeholders see Valkenburg as a tourism destination?
6. How do Dutch tourists see Valkenburg as a tourism destination?
7. How do locals see Valkenburg as a place to live?
8. How do these images complement/ conflict with each other, where are the gaps?
9. What recommendations can be made to improve the city’s Competitive Identity?
Methodology
The research has been conducted via primary and secondary research. The secondary research
comprises the literature reviewed as well as the destination analysis. The theories used in order to
illustrate the outcomes are the Gap-analysis from Jaap van der Grinten (2010), which divides the
identity in the desired identity pursued, the actual identity perceived and the physical identity
displayed, these are the perspectives of the municipality and the stakeholders of the city. After that
the image is researched from two other perspectives, namely the residents and Dutch tourists. The
model from Jaap van der Grinten takes the identity and the image, and reveals the gaps in between.
These gaps are used in order to come up with the recommendations for the municipality and other
stakeholders. They are illustrated by means of the Competitive Identity Hexagon of Simon Anholt
(2002). This model divides the Competitive identity in six different areas, namely tourism, brands,
policy, investment, culture and people.
This primary research has been conducted both quantitative and qualitative, namely self-completion
questionnaires and semi-structured interviews respectively. The original research method (conducting
questionnaires in the city itself) had to be complemented with an online questionnaire, due to time
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
limitations and the low number of respondents in the city itself (the research has been conducted in
the fall of 2012). The quantitative research provides the opportunity to base recommendations on the
statistics derived from the research, the qualitative research complements this due to its nature which
allows for deeper research that reveals underlying motivations, ideas and perceptions.
The primary research has been processed by means of SPSS, a program which processes and analyzes
statistical data.
Conclusions and recommendations
The overall image of Valkenburg as perceived by the Dutch tourists and residents is relatively good,
the tourists grading the city with a 7.4 on average, while the residents graded the city with a 7.5 on
average. However the research has shown that there are gaps between the desired identity, actual
identity, physical identity and image. It is important for the municipality and stakeholders of
Valkenburg to align the various visions in order to strengthen the identity. Valkenburg at the moment
is stagnating and in need for renewal, as acknowledged by stakeholders, residents and tourists. The
recommendations made by the author were based on the primary and secondary research conducted.
It is illustrated by means of the CI Hexagon, which incorporates the six different channels through
which a strong identity is formed. The most important recommendations can be found below.
-
The key throughout all recommendations made is good communication, between
stakeholders, between municipality and its residents and of course the promotion towards
tourists. It is vital for the city to create a healthy atmosphere where there is a sense of
belonging and unity among all parties. In this way higher goals can be achieved, and the
identity will be strengthened. Communication should be clear, detailed and aligned with the
desired identity.
-
Active residency should be encouraged and the municipality should listen to the needs and
opinions of its residents. Of course not everything can be taken into account, but residents are
the true ambassadors of the city, and should feel comfortable with the vision of the
municipality. Furthermore it is important to offer possibilities for the residents during events,
in order to minimize the problems.
-
It is important to align the various channels of promotion in order not to create confusion
among stakeholders, tourists and residents. It is important that they understand what is
happening, why this is, and how they could benefit from this.
-
The new Wellness theme and its sub areas, culinary, sports, culture and Christmas should be
the red line for the promotion, investment, development and the cityscape in the near future.
It should all be aligned.
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Nature is regarded a top priority (marl caves being the unique selling point of Valkenburg) and
should be well managed and maintained. This should also be used in the promotion.
Furthermore the city centre is much appreciated by both tourist and resident.
-
It is important for the city to incorporate the surroundings and other villages in the
municipality in order to stimulate that sense of unity, and to have those areas profit from the
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tourism industry as well. Furthermore developments should also take place in those areas, not
only in the city centre.
-
Parking is a major issue in the city, mainly during events. A large parking place outside the
urban area could provide a solution to this problem. Furthermore it might be interesting to
offer parking passes to residents that are having visitors over.
-
Investment, innovation and young talent should be encouraged and stimulated in order to
create a healthy business environment and creative atmosphere in the city. Loosening
legislation and bureaucracy could be an option in order to minimize the difficulties.
-
Road safety should be up to standards for the elderly and children in particular. Crossovers at
school areas, and special “cycling free” zones could be options in order to improve the safety.
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Young people and children should be stimulated by offering activities and possibilities for
them to enjoy the city, in order to keep them from migrating elsewhere.
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A good price/ quality ratio should be cherished after the current developments. Valkenburg
should still be affordable for the average “Joe”, since those tourists have always been and
probably will be the main tourism market.
-
The RECRON campaign is an interesting modern day look at tourism markets. A research for
Valkenburg in particular might be interesting for future marketing purposes, use of promotion
channels and better product-market combinations.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................... 3
Executive summary ........................................................................................................................... 4
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 11
1. The Research Proposal ................................................................................................................. 12
1.1 Background analysis.................................................................................................................. 12
1.1.1 Valkenburg......................................................................................................................... 12
1.1.2 Place branding ................................................................................................................... 12
1.1.3 Why? ................................................................................................................................. 13
1.2 The set-up................................................................................................................................. 15
1.2.1 Research problem .............................................................................................................. 15
1.2.2 Research goal ..................................................................................................................... 15
1.2.3 Research questions ............................................................................................................ 15
1.2.4 Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 15
1.2.5 Research design, strategy and methods ............................................................................. 16
1.2.6 Sampling ............................................................................................................................ 17
1.2.7 Limitations and boundaries ................................................................................................ 18
1.2.8 Relevance .......................................................................................................................... 19
1.2.9 Structure ............................................................................................................................ 19
2. Literature Review ........................................................................................................................ 20
2.1 Image ....................................................................................................................................... 20
2.2 Place branding .......................................................................................................................... 20
2.3 Competitive identity ................................................................................................................. 23
2.4 The Hexagon of competitive identity (CI) .................................................................................. 24
2.5 The Gap analysis ....................................................................................................................... 25
2.5.1 The Identity ........................................................................................................................ 27
2.5.2 The Image .......................................................................................................................... 27
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
2.5.3 The Gap analysis ................................................................................................................ 28
2.6 How to measure the image? ..................................................................................................... 30
2.6.1 The stakeholders of Valkenburg ......................................................................................... 31
2.6.2 The residents of Valkenburg ............................................................................................... 31
2.6.3 The tourists of Valkenburg ................................................................................................. 32
2.7 Conclusions............................................................................................................................... 33
3. Valkenburg, the destination ......................................................................................................... 35
3.1 The History ............................................................................................................................... 35
3.2 Tourism Demand ...................................................................................................................... 37
3.2.1 The overnight stays ............................................................................................................ 37
3.2.2 The markets ....................................................................................................................... 38
3.2.3 Length of stay .................................................................................................................... 40
3.2.4 Expenditure ....................................................................................................................... 40
3.3 Tourism Supply ......................................................................................................................... 41
3.3.1 Destination mix .................................................................................................................. 41
3.3.2 SWOT Analysis ................................................................................................................... 44
3.3.3 The Broad Context Model (Weaver) ................................................................................... 45
3.4 Tourism Impact Studies ............................................................................................................. 46
3.4.1 Economic impacts .............................................................................................................. 46
3.4.2 Socio-cultural impacts ........................................................................................................ 46
3.4.3 Environmental impacts ...................................................................................................... 46
3.5 Tourism Planning & Development ............................................................................................. 47
3.5.1 The Stakeholders................................................................................................................ 47
3.5.2 Destination life cycle .......................................................................................................... 50
3.5.3 Future development .......................................................................................................... 50
4. The Primary Research .................................................................................................................. 54
4.1 The Identity .............................................................................................................................. 54
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
4.1.1 The desired identity (or desired image) .............................................................................. 54
4.1.2 The actual identity ............................................................................................................. 56
4.1.3 The physical identity .......................................................................................................... 57
4.2 The Image ................................................................................................................................. 60
4.2.1 The tourists ........................................................................................................................ 60
4.2.2 The residents ..................................................................................................................... 67
4.3 The gaps ................................................................................................................................... 73
4.3.1 Desired identity – Actual identity ....................................................................................... 73
4.3.2 Desired identity – Physical identity ..................................................................................... 73
4.3.3 Desired identity – Image .................................................................................................... 74
5. Recommendations ....................................................................................................................... 75
5.1 Tourism .................................................................................................................................... 75
5.2 Brands ...................................................................................................................................... 76
5.3 Policy ........................................................................................................................................ 76
5.4 Investment ............................................................................................................................... 77
5.5 Culture...................................................................................................................................... 77
5.6 People ...................................................................................................................................... 78
6. Bibliography ................................................................................................................................ 79
7. Appendices .................................................................................................................................. 82
7.1 Notes from the interviews ........................................................................................................ 83
7.2 Questionnaires ......................................................................................................................... 92
7.2.1 Questionnaire residents Valkenburg................................................................................... 92
7.2.2 Questionnaire tourists Valkenburg ..................................................................................... 96
7.3 Map of Valkenburg ................................................................................................................... 99
7.4 Inhabitants of Valkenburg aan de Geul.................................................................................... 100
7.5 Tourism demand Valkenburg .................................................................................................. 101
7.6 Broad Context Model .............................................................................................................. 103
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7.7 Tourism impacts on the local economy of Valkenburg............................................................. 104
7.8 Destination Life Cycle model ................................................................................................... 105
7.9 SPSS Output Questionnaires ................................................................................................... 106
7.9.1 The tourists ...................................................................................................................... 106
7.9.2 The residents ................................................................................................................... 118
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Introduction
This thesis has been an initiative of the author himself. The municipality has been consulted whether
they would be interested in such a research, and they were. This thesis is therefore written in order to
be of assistance to the municipality and other stakeholders of Valkenburg. It appeared that no such a
research has been done for Valkenburg in particular and therefore it could be of importance for the
city in order to improve its competitive identity, or place brand.
The report researches the identity and image of Valkenburg aan de Geul in the south of Limburg.
Several perspectives are used in order to create a better overview and provide recommendations to
the city to improve itself.
1. The municipality and other stakeholders
2. The Dutch tourists
3. The residents of Valkenburg
The main research goal is:
To gain a clear and detailed insight into how the Dutch tourists, residents and stakeholders of
Valkenburg perceive the city as a tourism destination and a place to live in, in order to give
recommendations to the municipality of Valkenburg on how optimize their Competitive Identity.
The report starts with a review of the literature that has been written on the matter, in order to lay
the foundation for further research. After that the destination of Valkenburg has been analyzed
(secondary research) in order to create an overview of its tourism industry. The report continues with
the primary research conducted, which is divided in the desired identity, the actual identity as it is
now, the physical identity displayed and the image. The gaps that appeared between the desired
identity and the others are the foundation for the recommendations made.
The primary research has been done via interviews and questionnaires among stakeholders, residents
and Dutch tourists.
The research is limited to Dutch tourists, which have visited the city and therefore know what it is like.
Furthermore due to the width of the research, it does not go that deep into one perspective. It does
provide a good overview on the three different perspectives. Future research might want to focus on
one perspective in order to reveal more detailed information and statistics.
In the appendices one will find the numbers and figures that contribute to the report.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
1. The Research Proposal
1.1 Background analysis
1.1.1 Valkenburg
Valkenburg is the cycling capital of the Netherlands and famous for its races, routes, nature and
history. It has always been a popular tourist destination. It is popular among cyclists and other tourists
that enjoy the scenery and activities/ events that take place in and around the city. Even in the winter
season it is popular thanks to the Christmas markets and the relatively new Red Bull Crashed Ice event.
Valkenburg has a lot to offer, it is located in a unique area of the Netherlands, where it is not as “flat”
as in the rest of the country. It is a very quiet and green area and therefore offers nature, rest and
beautiful landscapes. Furthermore the city offers a lively food & beverage sector which is especially
popular in the spring and summer seasons, when the weather is relatively good.
Valkenburg also has a lot of historical buildings and caves, which are exploited for tourism and leisure
purposes as well, for example the cave mountain biking and visits to the old castle (Municipality
Valkenburg, 2012).
The city is promoted mainly by means of its cycling events, the nature, history and cosy city centre.
Since Valkenburg has been a very popular destination in the Netherlands for a very long time, the city
seems to have an “old image”, referring to elderly people or families. But is this really true? So far no
specific research has been done on the image and identity of Valkenburg.
Nowadays the importance for cities to ‘brand’ themselves is increasing. This in order to attract people
to live there, to visit the city and of course people and companies to invest in the city. It is a relatively
new study called place branding, and is getting more popular especially in bigger cities in the world.
Below one will find a description of the concept of place branding.
1.1.2 Place branding
To understand the term place branding (or destination branding) one must first go back to the roots of
this new field, the brand. What is a brand? The following description has been given by Kapferer
(1997):
“A brand is an impression perceived in a client’s mind of a product or a service. It is the sum of all
tangible and intangible elements, which makes the selection unique.
A brand is not only a symbol that separates one product from others, but it is all the attributes that
come to the consumer’s mind when he or she thinks about the brand. Such attributes are the tangible,
intangible, psychological and sociological features related to the product.” (Kapferer, 1997 – How to
brand Nations, Cities and Destinations, p6)
A brand is not created but exists in the consumer’s mind. Furthermore there are three important
concepts related to a brand; identity, image and communication. The identity of the brand is created
by the sender (the company/ destination), the image is constructed by the receiver (consumers). The
difference between the two is that the sender has an identity that he or she wishes to pursue, while
the image as perceived by the receiver is the reality of how the brand is seen. Therefore it is essential
for the sender to communicate the right values and messages in order to reach its desired identity
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
(Moilanen and Rainisto, 2009). In addition to organizations, places can also be brands. Simon Anholt
defines place branding in his book ‘Competitive Identity’ (2007):
“Place branding is the management of place image through strategic innovation and coordinated
economic, commercial, social, cultural and government policy. Competitive identity (CI) is the term to
describe the synthesis of brand management with public diplomacy and with trade, investments,
tourism and export promotion.”
Due to the globalisation, competition between places has gone global. People can travel the world
fairly easier than before and therefore it is important for places to create strong identities and brands.
A strong place brand/ identity could be of great benefits for a city or country since it influences many
sectors. The competition between places is not merely for tourists, it also entails residents, workforce,
investors and business. Research has shown that a strong brand/ identity backed up with a
professional campaign attracts more business, investments, a skilful workforce, inhabitants and
visitors to the area (Moilanen and Rainisto, 2009). Due to the fierce competition it is important to
promote the uniqueness of the place, to attract others by means of culture, environment, social
development, the atmosphere and image related to the place.
As Moilanen and Rainisto (2009) point out it is essential to have coordination, integration and
cooperation of all factors and stakeholders. It is vital to build strong private-public partnerships,
ensure a strong identity and use it, ensure financial resources for the future and connect with the
interest groups (tourists, residents, stakeholders). Hankinson (2007) proposes that for destinations to
succeed they need to demonstrate strong visionary and effective leadership; a brand-orientated
organizational culture where the brand is built internally from senior management down and is
embedded across the organization; effective internal coordination; consistent communication; and
strong compatible partnership structures (Morgan, Pritchard and Pride, 2011). It is vital for the
destination to align the various aspects of place branding and all stakeholders should share the
identity pursued. The key to success is cooperation and alignment.
A strong destination brand should:
-
Attract business and investments
-
Promote the goals of the tourism industry
-
Promote public diplomacy
-
Support the interest of exporting industries
-
Strengthen the identity and increase self-respect (Moilanen and Rainisto, 2009).
1.1.3 Why?
Why is an image research of importance for Valkenburg? According to the author’s information, so far
no recent research has been done on the identity and image of Valkenburg and this is therefore a
perfect opportunity to do so, and hopefully create a better understanding of the destination and see
how to improve and optimize their policies, developments and marketing efforts.
Image and identity is increasing in popularity among customers but also investors, therefore a clear
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and detailed report could increase the interest of investors and tourists that are interested in
Valkenburg. Furthermore it is important for the city to know and understand its image in order to
develop a matching strategy which will result in better outcomes for the future. It is a long term
commitment and process which could improve the image and financial benefits for the city.
It is important to understand and monitor the image and know what affects it. Furthermore through
collaboration between the civilians, private sector and municipality better strategies, complementing
the desired identity, could be developed. Lastly the government can ensure that the city keeps on
providing and developing new products, services, policies and initiatives to maintain the image and
prove the public that they earn that image.
After all, a city with a good image will find everything going smoothly. However a city with a bad image
will have to work twice as hard in order to gain the same results. (Simon Anholt, 2010)
The positive place identity could be a sustainable competitive advantage. It is generally based on
either core competencies or unique resources that are difficult to imitate by others. This could involve
the local nature or culture, the physical assets, history or other expressions (e.g. art, design). On the
other hand a competitive advantage could be gained from the competencies such as the capabilities of
the host community, services, organization of the civil life, education, work ethic or knowledge within
the community (Robert Govers & Frank Co, 2009). For Valkenburg this could mean the popular events
that are taking place, particular traditions of the area or the “cycling-culture”. Lastly, as becomes clear
in the text above, the residents of Valkenburg play an important role in the forming of the identity of
the city. It is therefore of importance that the residents share the identity that the city wishes to have,
as well as support it. Therefore this research will also include the level of satisfaction that residents
have on Valkenburg, as a place to live. After all, they are the ambassadors of the city who could make
or break the image.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
1.2 The set-up
1.2.1 Research problem
After the previous analysis and having talked with the municipality it became clear that there is a need
for an image and identity research of Valkenburg. The municipality will start working on its new city
marketing plan in the end of 2012, and an image and identity research could be of great importance
for their decisions in the future. No such research has been done recently for Valkenburg in particular,
only for the south of Limburg in general. Due to the large differences between the places within the
south of Limburg, a specific research on Valkenburg could lead to more useful and promising
outcomes than the previous mentioned research on the south of Limburg.
1.2.2 Research goal
To gain a clear and detailed insight into how the Dutch tourists, residents and stakeholders of
Valkenburg perceive the city as a tourism destination and a place to live in, in order to give
recommendations to the municipality of Valkenburg on how optimize their Competitive Identity.
1.2.3 Research questions
“What are the identity and image of the city of Valkenburg?”
1. What is place branding?
2. What are image, identity and gaps, and why are those important for tourism development?
3. What is Valkenburg as a tourism destination?
4. What is the (actual/ desired) identity of the city (municipality)?
5. How do stakeholders see Valkenburg as a tourism destination?
6. How do Dutch tourists see Valkenburg as a tourism destination?
7. How do locals see Valkenburg as a place to live?
8. How do these images complement/ conflict with each other, where are the gaps?
9. What recommendations can be made to improve the city’s Competitive Identity?
1.2.4 Methodology
Secondary research
The study of image and identity is relatively new and therefore there are many authors still debating
and discussing the various elements. There are various opinions on what the definition is and what
elements and aspects should be included or excluded. It is important to review all the literature and
find common ground in order to lay a solid foundation for the primary research. The chapter
‘Literature Review’ will discuss this, and will provide a basis for the primary research.
Furthermore secondary research has been done on the destination of Valkenburg itself. In this way the
author could write a destination analysis which is of great importance to understand and comprehend
the current and past situation of the city, as well as the future developments. It also entails the
marketing efforts, stakeholders and tourism markets. The numbers and figures provide a clearer
picture of the tourism industry.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Primary research
The primary research will be divided in three different parts. The first part of the primary research is
the semi-structured interviews with the main stakeholders of Valkenburg, as defined by the
municipality. The main stakeholders will be interviewed in order to understand the cooperation
between those stakeholders, and to understand their beliefs and drive to succeed as a destination.
Secondly a questionnaire will be conducted among the Dutch tourists to research the image they have
of the city as a tourism destination. In addition to this, several tourists will be interviewed (semistructured) in order to reveal the underlying motives and create a better understanding of their view.
Thirdly a questionnaire will be conducted among the residents of Valkenburg, to research the image
they have of the city as a place to live. Again, several residents will be interviewed (semi-structured) in
order to create a better understanding of their view, and reveal underlying motives.
A more detailed description and explanation of how these interviews and questionnaires will be
conducted can be found in the subchapter “How to Measure?”.
1.2.5 Research design, strategy and methods
The research design of the thesis is a cross-sectional one, which implies that the research is conducted
on more than one case at a single point in time. The quantitative data allows making connections
between variables and detecting patterns of association between the variables.
In order to reach the best result possible a mixed methods research strategy is used. This means that a
quantitative research will be conducted as well as a qualitative research. The quantitative research will
be held among the tourists and residents of Valkenburg, since large numbers of respondents are
desired in order to have a better representation of the total population. In addition to this quantitative
research, qualitative research will be held among tourists and residents as well, in order to back up the
information gathered from the quantitative data and to go deeper into the motives and experiences of
the answers.
On the other hand the qualitative research will be done among the stakeholders of Valkenburg, in
order to establish their views on Valkenburg and the identity they wish to pursue.
The method used for quantitative research is a self-completion questionnaire.
This type of questionnaire allows for larger number of respondents and the possibility to find patterns
and links between certain factors and answers. The questionnaire will be distributed in person, in the
city of Valkenburg. Furthermore the questionnaire will be distributed and offered on the internet, on
the website of Thesis Tools. This will increase the number of respondents and allows for more
respondents to take part in the research. The questionnaire will consist of closed questions and a
horizontal format has been chosen in order not to create the disillusion of a longer questionnaire than
it really is. The horizontal format will be done via the “Likert Scale”. This format mentions a statement
to which respondents can answer varying from for example Strongly Agree (5) to Strongly Disagree (1).
The Likert scale and use of closed questions provide the advantage of pre-coding the data. The
number 5 stands for Strongly Agree, while number 1 stands for Strongly Disagree. Residents will be
asked to write down in words what they find good or bad in the city, while on the other hand tourists
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will be asked what they first think of when hearing the name “Valkenburg”, before starting the
questionnaire.
The method used for qualitative research is a semi-structured interview.
A semi-structured interview allows for two-way communication between the interviewee and
interviewer. It is more open-minded and could generate more and better outcomes for the
interviewer in order to obtain relevant and important information. (Social Research Methods, 2008)
In order to find the underlying motives and experiences of the residents and tourists, interviews will
be held among them. This will generate more valuable information and could reveal several elements
that are not possible to reveal with a questionnaire.
Since the stakeholders will be interviewed about their views of the identity of Valkenburg, it is
important not to guide them too much into a specific direction. Therefore a semi-structured interview
is a great method of obtaining the answers needed for this research. Open questions will be asked in
order not to set any borders and/ or limitations for the interviewee.
1.2.6 Sampling
For this thesis a random sampling method will be used. This type of non-probability sampling does not
provide a very representative way of doing research; however it does generate large amounts of
respondents and is used commonly in research nowadays. Since it is difficult to have a representative
probability sampling due to time limitations, a random sampling is favoured for this thesis.
The sample size has been calculated according to the survey software of Creative Research Systems
(Surveysystem.com, 2012).
To determine the sample size there are several factors to bear in mind.
“The confidence interval (also called margin of error) is the plus-or-minus figure usually reported in newspaper or
television opinion poll results. For example, if you use a confidence interval of 4 and 47% percent of your sample
picks an answer you can be "sure" that if you had asked the question of the entire relevant population between
43% (47-4) and 51% (47+4) would have picked that answer.
The confidence level tells you how sure you can be. It is expressed as a percentage and represents how often the
true percentage of the population who would pick an answer lies within the confidence interval. The 95%
confidence level means you can be 95% certain; the 99% confidence level means you can be 99% certain. Most
researchers use the 95% confidence level.
When you put the confidence level and the confidence interval together, you can say that you are 95% sure that
the true percentage of the population is between 43% and 51%. The wider the confidence interval you are willing
to accept, the more certain you can be that the whole population answers would be within that range.
For example, if you asked a sample of 1000 people in a city which brand of cola they preferred, and 60% said
Brand A, you can be very certain that between 40 and 80% of all the people in the city actually do prefer that
brand, but you cannot be so sure that between 59 and 61% of the people in the city prefer the brand.”
(Creative Research Systems, 2012)
For the image research of Valkenburg the confidence interval has been set at 95%.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
According to the Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS), the population of Valkenburg in 2012 is 16.945,
comprising of 3.085 people under 20 years, 9.745 people between 20 and 65 years and 4.115 above
65 years.
This means that the sample size for the questionnaire among the residents would be as follow:
Population: 16.945
Confidence level: 95%
Confidence interval: 6.64
Sample size: 215
According to the municipality of Valkenburg, the total amounts of nights spent there in 2011 are
roughly 1.100.000 nights.
The sample size for the tourists of Valkenburg would be as follow:
Population: 1.100.000
Confidence level: 95%
Confidence interval: 8.84
Sample size: 123
In addition to the questionnaires, tourists and residents will be interviewed in order to give substance
to the questionnaires, and reveal underlying motives and better understanding of their images.
1.2.7 Limitations and boundaries
The research has some limitations due to the method of research. The questionnaires and interviews
with the tourists will be held in the city, as well as online via an online questionnaire. The tourists
asked are Dutch tourists that visited or are visiting Valkenburg and therefore know the city. This does
not include tourists that have never been to Valkenburg. This research will therefore reveal the image
of tourists that have visited Valkenburg. This does not mean that it is not important but it does limit
the outcomes of the research. A future research could include these other target markets in order to
get a better understanding and see whether there are differences.
The residents of Valkenburg are reached by means of e-mail via the municipality of Valkenburg, as well
as an online questionnaire. Furthermore the author has reached respondents by visiting Valkenburg
and asking people on the street or at their house.
The sampling method is not the most representative one, but nevertheless will provide important
outcomes. The research will give an insight in the image that tourists and residents have of
Valkenburg. Due to the large size of the research, the analysis goes not that deep if one would focus
on one market, however it does provide a good overview and insight in the perceptions. Furthermore
the research will be held at a single point in time, which will not show the differences between certain
periods of time (or seasons). A future research could investigate whether there are differences.
The research will consist mainly of quantitative research (questionnaires), with qualitative (interviews)
research to back this up. A future research might want to focus on qualitative research in order to
create a deeper understanding of the image. However this quantitative research could be of great
importance since patterns and conclusions could be found in the quantitative data.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Lastly it might be interesting to research the foreign tourist markets, in order to see what attracts
them to Valkenburg, and how they perceive the city.
1.2.8 Relevance
The need for a strong identity is vital for the city in order to succeed in the future. A good cooperation
and clear direction for all stakeholders will improve their efforts and provides a guideline for their
operations. According to the author’s information, so far no such research has been done for the city
of Valkenburg, merely for the entire south of Limburg, which also includes for example Maastricht,
which is completely different than Valkenburg as a destination.
Secondly the municipality will start working on their new city marketing plan in the end of 2012, and
they could certainly use an image and identity research to form the basis of their new marketing plan.
This research could confirm or disprove some of their ideas and beliefs for their vision in the near
future. If needed, they could still adjust the plan and efforts in order to succeed in achieving their
desired identity.
Of course the research will also provide an insight in how the tourist and residents see Valkenburg as a
tourism destination, and a place to live. The municipality could then take actions in order to change
this, if necessary. On the other hand they also know what is appreciated, and what they should
definitely continue to do.
1.2.9 Structure
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
2. Literature Review
In this chapter various theories and frameworks related to the concept of image, identity and place
branding will be reviewed in order to lay a foundation for the further research.
2.1 Image
Images are formed by each individual, and each individual absorbs its own influences in order to form
that image. These influences all affect the formation of the image and will result in different images
for every individual (Kim and Morrison, 2005). These differences relate to the elements that compose
the image (Gartner, 1993).
-
Cognitive (internally accepted picture of the destination)
awareness, familiarity, associations
-
Affective (motives what is to be obtained from the destination)
feelings, emotions
-
Conative (actions and behaviour after cognitive and affective evaluations)
tendency of certain behaviour
“The image concept assumes that if an individual has adequate knowledge of a destination together
with positive emotions and judgements towards it, he, or she is willing to choose it (as well as related
products) from others.” (Florek and Zyminkowski, 2002 – Mega Event = Mega Impact?, p203)
This could result in repeat visits, a stronger attachment to the destination and positive word-of-mouth
promotion to the outside world. It is therefore vital for a destination to obtain a positive and strong
identity/ image.
The formation of the image changes over time and is influenced by several actors. There are three
major steps in how the image is formed (Gunn, 1972);
-
Organic image; formed by independent information delivered by non tourist sources such
as the media and word-of-mouth.
-
Induced image; formed by promoted information such as campaigns, advertisements,
travel agencies etc.
-
Modified-induced image; formed by the personal experience of the destination.
The attempt to modify or change the image is referred to as ‘place branding’, which will be elaborated
on in the subchapter below. This thesis will focus on tourists that are visiting or visited Valkenburg and
the thesis is therefore limited due to the exclusion of potential and non visitors.
2.2 Place branding
First of all it is important to compare the branding of corporations and cities or nations. Could this be
done in the same way? Or are there so many differences that make it a totally different field of work?
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
It is a topic widely discussed in the research world and some even say that it might not be ready yet to
state a universally accepted theory on the matter (Ashworth and Kavaratzis, 2010). Place branding
should not be seen as corporate branding, but it is definitely based on corporate branding. Branding
corporations certainly entails several common elements and lessons to learn when it comes to place
branding. However, places should not be seen as corporations. The complexity of cities or nations is
way more difficult to pin down since many factors are present, which are not in case of a corporation
(Anholt, 2002). One could think of the many stakeholders involved, including residents and investors.
Furthermore cities have to take into account that they have a social responsibility, they have to ensure
good facilities, education, healthcare, business opportunities etc. Also the fact that there are so many
stakeholders to bear in mind, it is difficult to create a single and clear identity for all of them
(Ashworth, 2006). Kavaratzis (2008) stated two relevant arguments:
“First, that place branding is not about telling the world that our place is good; instead it is about
making our place good and letting the world know that we are trying. Secondly, that place branding
does help improve a place’s image but this improvement is always based on wide interventions that
call the brand to mind rather on promotion alone.” (Kavaratzis, 2008 - Towards Effective Place Brand
Management, p38)
Thus it is important to understand that place branding is not just about communications to the outer
world. Simon Anholt (2008) also stated that it is not about communications but about policy change. It
is about actions rather than words. Everything should be done according to the strategy and desired
identity of the city. It is important to link the different stakeholders and build strong partnerships and
thrust in the desired identity and strategy of the city. This also counts for communications, since these
have to be consistent and aligned with the identity that the city wishes to pursue. The product
offering, as well as the planning and design interventions or infrastructure development should all
reflect the identity (Ashworth and Kavaratzis, 2004). This is exactly what makes place branding
different from corporate branding. It asks for a different approach.
Ashworth and Kavaratzis have extensively researched the various frameworks and models of
corporate branding and reviewed them in order to find common elements. First of all it is important to
know the reasons for this relatively new study. Hulberg (2006) summarized these three main reasons.
-
Differentiation; separating oneself from others in an environment where consumers might be
confused about the differences in product offering
-
Transparency; the external audience can see who’s behind the brand, what their beliefs and
values are, what they stand for and what policy they have
-
Cost reduction; having one corporate brand would reduce costs since the corporation does
not have to promote several single brands
There are many more models that were reviewed by the previous mentioned authors, but for this
report the author will introduce one more recent concept, to illustrate the idea of what the principles
of corporate branding are.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The 6 C’s of Corporate Marketing (Balmer and Greyser, 2006)
-
Character; tangible and intangible assets, markets, philosophy, what we are
-
Culture; collective feeling (internal), beliefs and assumptions, what we feel we are
-
Communication; Channels of communication with customers and others, word-of-mouth,
media, what we say we are
-
Conceptualisations; perception of the brand as seen by customers and stakeholders, what we
are seen to be
-
Constituencies; meeting the wants and demands of the various stakeholders, customers,
whom we seek to serve
-
Covenant; the promise made by the corporate brand, which leads to expectations, what is
promised by us and expected from us
Below one will find an example of a framework for place branding. There are several others which
have been reviewed but in the author’s opinion the following ‘place branding toolkit’ entails important
elements which will come back later.
Place Branding Toolkit (Trueman and Cornelius, 2006) – The 5 P’s
-
Presence; iconic symbols, ordered and multi-layered identity (that caters for the various
stakeholders), visibility (visual presence)
-
Purpose; distinct boundaries, brand ownership (civic pride), multi-cultural society (for
regeneration and new ideas), clear communication channels (reinforcement of cohesion of the
messages sent)
-
Pace; public-private partnerships (unity, balance and releases tensions)
-
Personality; the emotional landscape (the feeling)
-
Power; social purpose and empowerment (reinforcement of brand presence and thrust)
The place branding frameworks have been compared to the lessons learned from the corporate
branding frameworks in order to find common ground and come up with a comprehensive place
branding framework (Kavaratzis, 2010).
-
Vision and Strategy; the city needs a vision for the future, and a clear strategy in order to
realise that vision
-
Internal Culture; the need for unity within the city and its employees. There needs to be
feedback, understanding and support
-
External Culture; the activation of local communities (residents, entrepreneurs, interest
groups) by means of listening to their needs and involve them in the strategy and brand
delivery
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
-
Partnerships; to find common ground between stakeholders within the city and outside of the
city
-
Infrastructure; for the city to function as a place to live, work, visit and invest in
-
Alignment; alignment of the brand to the natural and built environment (cityscape, gateways)
-
Opportunities; for people (employment, education, services, leisure, lifestyle etc.) / for
companies (tax incentives, labour conditions etc.)
-
Communication; creative and effective brand communications which are consistent
The elements mentioned above should be seen as ‘substantial, strategically informed, symbolic
actions’ (Anholt, 2008). It are the actions of the city that need to prove that they are the identity that
they pursue, or are at least trying to be.
Lastly it is important to understand that corporate branding and place branding are not the same.
However they are linked to each other and place brand managers could learn valuable lessons for their
own frameworks. There are several common elements as can be seen above, but place branding is
much more complex, which makes it more difficult to pin down. The key to success is unity and
partnerships which are aligned with the desired identity.
The idea behind place branding is to make a place better for its residents and its visitors (Hildreth,
2010).
2.3 Competitive identity
Nowadays the images of corporations and cities or nations are becoming more popular and important
in order to create a better understanding and connection with the stakeholders/ residents/ tourists.
The relationships between each other are more important and valued highly. Therefore it would be a
very useful report for both the municipality and investors. It will provide a good overview of the
image, the identity and the potential for the future.
To know and understand the image and identity of the city is of importance in order to improve one’s’
image by means of place branding, or as Simon Anholt prefers to call it “competitive identity”. Place
branding is not just about logos and slogans, it is more than just marketing and promoting (Simon
Anholt, 2010). It is important to understand that place branding is more than just communicating to
your stakeholders and tourists, one has to live up to the identity that one wishes to have. The strategy
and policies of the municipality have to be altered to this image.
“The notion of brand purpose is critical: the idea that uniting groups of people around a common
strategic vision can create a powerful dynamic progress, and that brand management is first and
foremost an internal project.” (Simon Anholt, 2010 – Places, p12)
The detailed description and analysis of the image and identity of a city will be vital for the
municipality, the civil society and the tourists. If one understands the image and the strategy, one is
more likely to put more effort into it, and come up with better ideas to sustain this image. Policies can
be adjusted to the image/ identity, for example economic investments, developments and campaigns.
On the other hand, tourists can relate to the image and might be attracted to it.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
It is important to understand that the process of improving an image is a long one, and that a better
image cannot be constructed or invented, it can only be earned (Simon Anholt, 2010). By means of
collaboration between the civilians, the municipality and the private sector within the city, one could
follow a certain strategy that fits the image of the city. This strategy would then include new
developments, projects and investments which could lead to an improved image. In this way the city
earns its image by displaying the values and aspects that it wishes to pursue. This process or strategy is
a long term one rather than for example the short term marketing campaigns (e.g. a tourism
campaign) for the city. Marketing efforts will probably increase the financial income for that particular
sector but will have little or no effect at all on the image of the city (Simon Anholt, 2010).
2.4 The Hexagon of competitive identity (CI)
Simon Anholt created the hexagon of CI in 2002 and nowadays it is a widely accepted model that
shows the different channels that form the images of destinations (Morgan; Pritchard; Pride; Hildreth,
2011). Below one will find the explanation of the model:
1. Tourism promotion activity, as well as the people’s first-hand experience of visiting the country as
tourists or business travellers. Often the loudest voices in branding the region or nation, as tourist
boards usually have the biggest budgets and the most competent marketers.
2. Exported products and services, which act as powerful ambassadors for each country and region,
but only where their place of origin is explicit.
3. Policy decisions of the region’s government, both foreign and domestic, which affects us or gets
reported in the media. There is an increasing closeness between the policy-makers and the
international media.
4. Business audiences, the way the region or country solicits inward investment, recruitment of foreign
‘talent’, and expansion into the country or region by foreign companies.
5. Cultural exchange and activities and exports: world tour by a national opera company, the works of
a famous author, and the national sports team.
6. The people themselves: the high-profile leaders and media and sport stars, as well as the population
in general; how they behave when abroad and how they treat visitors to their countries or regions.
(Simon Anholt, 2002)
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The model shows the six different channels of communication that form the competitive identity of
the destination. Once again it becomes clear that there should be harmony and professional
coordination between the channels in order to create a strong identity to the outside world. The
identity is formed by various channels that should all work together to find a common goal or achieve
a common vision. It is important to cooperate together and coordinate the communications to the
outside world in order to be successful.
The importance of a strong identity is strengthened by the globalization of the world. People have do
not have the time to investigate and experience every destination themselves and are often confined
to the stereotype stories and word-of-mouth promotion of a particular city or nation. Therefore it is
vital for a destination to build on a strong identity, to ensure that life is good at the destination, and
that tourists will talk about it in their home environment. Whatever destinations try to pull in
(investors, tourists, business etc.) or push out (products, services, culture etc.) is done with a discount
if the destination’s image is weak or negative, and at a premium if it is strong and positive (Simon
Anholt, 2011).
A destination should prove its worth by implementing policies, investments and establish partnerships
all consistent with the CI they wish to pursue. Since not every stakeholder could control all of the
channels of the hexagon, it is important to cooperate and communicate as a whole. The key is not
about telling the people what you are, but showing them.
According to Simon Anholt (2011), a strong and positive identity also results in a clear direction for the
future, an innovative environment, a healthy climate which has effective methods of investment,
tourism and business. This will also result in a better profile in the media, and increasing export.
Furthermore the cooperation with outside regions, associations and bodies will be simpler due to the
acceptation and recognition of the destination. Lastly there will be a more productive cultural relation
with other regions.
2.5 The Gap analysis
Jaap van der Grinten has published a step by step plan in order to research the image and identity,
resulting in an overview that displays the gaps between the former two (Mind the gap, 2010). This
gap-analysis has been used in several other research projects already and has been proved more than
useful for an image research and the potential image problem.
The need for image and identity research comes forth out of several changes that have occurred in the
past years. The new working field of “corporate communication” comes forth out of this need for
strategic thinking around image and identity and the following changes have stimulated this:
- Market changes (free trade, privatising, deregulations)
- Service industry
- Competition
- Corporate Responsibility
- Information Society
- Battle for top talent
- Fading line between internal/ external activities
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Due to the market changes the organizations could broaden their perspectives and product offer
which leads to a relatively vague image, especially when expanding to other countries or cities. It is
important to build up a strong image and identity where people can relate to.
Secondly the competition is getting fiercer every day and it is therefore of importance to stand out in
the eyes of the public. A strong identity and brand could ensure a better market position and
therefore also a better chance of survival.
Thirdly due to the service industry the society has a need for confirmation of quality and service. Since
almost 80% of the Dutch economy is based on services, which are not tangible, it is important for
organizations to express the values they stand for, a competitive identity that the people thrust.
The corporate responsibility is also of extreme importance nowadays. Organizations need to give back
to the community by engaging in economical, socio-cultural or environmental issues in the world. This
could be done in several ways, which also contributes to the image of the organization.
The rapid developments around internet have created an information society that has quick access to
several sources of information. Especially the social media and blogs have a strong influence on what
the word of the day is. Organizations need to be transparent, authentic and fair to the customers,
since the internet shows every move that goes on. Therefore good communication is vital and should
again also reflect the values the organization stands for.
From the perspective of the organization it is also important to have a strong identity and image, since
the battle for talented employees is becoming fiercer due to the strong competition and many options
available. Organizations with strong identities which are respected and recognizable all account for a
better chance of attracting the employees/ investors necessary for the future developments.
Lastly the fading line between internal and external activities is also of importance for a thought
through identity policy. Due to co operations between companies and co-creation with customers, the
existing identities fade away, while new ones emerge. It is important to monitor this and be aware if
this occurs.
In other words the corporate communication focuses on the strategic identity of the organization. It is
the management of the image and identity, comprising of both the actual and desired identities and
images, linked to the organizational goals and strategy.
“Corporate communication is het geintegreerd management van alle communicatie-uitingen van een
organisatie, zowel intern als extern, gericht op het realiseren van een gewenst organisatie-imago
vanuit de organisatie-doelen en de organisatie-identiteit.” (Jaap van der Grinten, 2010 – Mind the Gap,
p27)
In English, corporate communication is the integrated management of all communication-expressions
of an organization, both internally as well as externally, focused on realising a specific desired image
based on the organizational goals and identity.
The communication of the organization supports the values and goals and this results in a hopefully
strong identity and favourable image for the organization in question. The identity is therefore linked
to the goals and objectives of the organization. Therefore the image and identity are not goals on
itself, but tools that could contribute to obtaining the organizational goals.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
2.5.1 The Identity
This term will and has been used often in this report but what is it exactly? The identity of an
organization is an answer to the questions of “Who are we?”, “Where are we good at?” and “What do
we want to accomplish?”. This is then related to the question towards the customer “What do they
want?” The identity therefore displays what is unique and authentic about this particular organization.
The following definition (in Dutch) of Birkigt, Stadler and Funck (1998) shows the linkage between
identity, image and strategy:
“Organisatie-identiteit is de strategisch geplande en operationeel ingezette zelfpresentatie en het
gedrag van een onderneming naar binnen en buiten toe op basis van een vastgelegde
ondernemingsfilosofie, een langetermijnondernemingsdoelstelling en een bepaald gewenst imago, met
de wil alle handelingsinstrumenten van een ondernemning als een eenheid naar binnen en buiten toe
tot uiting te laten komen.” (Birkigt, Stadler and Funck, 1998 – Mind the Gap, p22-23)
In English, the organizational identity is the strategically planned and operationally deployed selfpresentation combined with the organizational behaviour internally and externally based on a fixed
organizational philosophy, a long-term organizational goal and a particular desired image, with the will
to use all organizational instruments as one unity both internally as well as to the outer world.
While a corporate identity used to be expressed mainly physically by means of logos and style,
nowadays it is much more complex and diverse. The whole organization should live and breathe the
same values and this is expressed in communication, interaction between employee and customer,
products, environment as well as the physical assets.
Lastly the term corporate communication has several synonyms, such as corporate identity
management, corporate reputation management, corporate branding or corporate level marketing. To
go even deeper in to the aspect of identity, one also speaks of actual and desired identity, which will
be elaborated on later.
2.5.2 The Image
Organizations strive for a strong identity in order to gain a favourable image in the eyes of the public.
The organizational image, also called the corporate image, has been defined by Jaap van der Grinten
as below:
“Het organisatie-imago is het beeld dat belangengroepen op een bepaald moment van een organisatie
hebben.” (Jaap van der Grinten, 2010 – Mind the Gap, p25)
In English, the organizational image is the image that the consumers have of the organization, at a
certain point in time. Of course every individual has a different image and different associations with a
certain brand or city. Fortunately there are also many similarities for managers to draw conclusions
on. As with the identity, the image also consists of the actual and the desired image. The difference
will be explained later.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
2.5.3 The Gap analysis
The Gap-Analysis consists of five different steps which eventually show the gaps between image and
identity and the possibility to draw conclusions and take further actions based on those. The different
steps are explained below.
Step 1 - The desired identity (desired image)
The desired identity is often based on the following aspects of an organization:
-
The vision
The mission
The core competencies
The values
To distinguish the difference between the vision and mission, here is a definition by Abrahams:
“A vision is something to be pursued, while a mission is something to be accomplished.” (Abrahams,
1995 – Mind the Gap, p40)
The vision reflects the higher goal that the organization wants to achieve, in most cases the vision is
something which is not achievable, but a goal to be strived for. The mission on the other hand is a goal
that should/ could be achieved in more or less 5 years. A mission should be achievable and also reflect
the values of the organization for it to be a success.
Core competencies are the aspects where the organization is good at. It is the very foundation of the
organization’s success. It is also used to distinguish from others, and be unique.
Lastly the values of the organization; these are ideals which are strived for. Values can be seen on
three different level namely towards the customers, internally and societal values. Examples are a
good quality and service to the customer, an open and cooperative environment internally and a
responsible and transparent way of doing business.
When the previous mentioned aspects of identity are studied closely, one could derive certain ‘core
values’ of them. These core values are vital in order to do an image and identity research. They are
words that capture the very essence of the organization. The internal goal is to create a connection
between the employees and the core values of the organization, externally, one wishes to realise the
desired image as seen by the consumers and create associations with the core values.
Step 2 – The actual identity
The actual identity is how the stakeholders perceive the destination. The stakeholders are the ones
that communicate the identity to the outside world and should therefore reflect the same desired
identity as the city. It is important to incorporate the stakeholders in the process, so that they could
relate to the identity and values behind it.
The stakeholders also form the physical identity and communications to the outside world. If this is
not consistent with the desired identity, confusion could trouble the vision which will result in a blurry
mixture of identities, values and images among both stakeholders and tourists. A strong identity
cannot be build without the support of the stakeholders of the city.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Step 3 – The physical identity
These are the tangible aspects of the identity. The following definition on the physical identity
captures what it entails:
“Corporate identity is concerned with four major areas of activity:
- Products/ Services – What you make or sell;
- Environments – Where you make or sell it – the place of physical context;
- Information – How you describe and publicize what you do;
- Behaviour – How people within the organization behave to each other and outsiders;
All of these communicate ideas about the company. But in fact the entire corporation communicates in
everything it does all the time.” (Wally Olins, 1989 – Mind the Gap, p60)
In terms of a city this would mean the city itself, its events and attractions, the way it is marketed to
the outside world and how the municipality and locals behave/ communicate towards the outside
world.
(Model translated from Dutch, Mind the Gap, 2010)
Jaap van der Grinten adds a fifth category in his literature, symbolism. This entails the aspects such as
the logo and the style of the organization.
Step 4 – The image
The image is what the consumers think of the organization or city at a certain point in time. It is not a
manageable aspect but nevertheless important to monitor in order to adapt one’s strategy and
policies. The image is comprised of the influences from the physical identity and on the other hand of
the external influences such as the media, other individuals, country/ region of origin, image of the
tourism industry and the role of groups (in for example child labour). Due to certain actions,
demonstrations or protests an image of a certain destination or organization could be altered.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Step 5 – The Gap-analysis
The last step, the gap-analysis, gathers all the information received from the steps above and shows
gaps between the three different levels.
(Model translated from Dutch, Mind the Gap, 2010)
The potential gaps exist at three different levels. The first gap is between the desired identity (the core
values) and the actual identity. Are there any differences between the two? Could one adapt the
strategy or communication in order to eliminate this gap?
The second gap is between the desired identity (the core values) and the physical identity. Is the
physical identity in line with the core values of the organization? Does it reflect the same values and
does it communicates these correctly?
The third gap is between the desired identity (the core values) and the image as perceived by the
consumers. Are there differences and if so, could these be eliminated by adapting the strategy,
communication, policies, investments etc? How could one reach the desired image?
In the end, the gaps could be tackled in three different ways:
1. Changing the desires of the management/ the policy;
2. Changing the insights of employees;
3. Changing the aspects of the physical identity.
2.6 How to measure the image?
An image research is a complex process which is difficult to measure. However, many authors have
tried and discussed several methods of measuring the image of a destination. Jones (1997) concludes
that mixing qualitative and quantitative methods could result in a strengthened outcome. The
qualitative semi-structured interviews will strengthen the quantitative outcome of the research
(Jayaratne, 1993). The quantitative research will reveal possible patterns and trends while the
qualitative research will go more into depth of the motives, experiences and perceptions behind it
(Cave, 2003). When conducting an image research it is important to set some standards where one
can compare the results and eventually draw conclusions from. In order for such a research to be
fruitful, one needs to be able to find patterns and see how to improve certain aspects of the
outcomes. This thesis will be done via three different primary research methods.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
2.6.1 The stakeholders of Valkenburg
This will be done via semi-structured interviews. The stakeholders of the city have an influence on the
policy-making and development of Valkenburg. Based on the literature review, it became clear that
the stakeholders of the city should cooperate with each other, and communicate consistently as a
whole. The stakeholders should all support the desired identity pursued by the city. Therefore an
interview should also tackle these issues and see whether the individual stakeholder also shares the
same beliefs, values and ideas. These interviews will be the foundation to establish the actual identity
of Valkenburg as perceived by the stakeholders.
The interviews with the stakeholders will ask various questions about their views on Valkenburg and
its identity. Firstly they will be asked what is typical for Valkenburg (values and aspects) and what they
think is the desired identity for the future. This is followed by how they perceive the identity of today.
Furthermore they will be asked about the SWOT of Valkenburg (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities
and threats). The second part will go more into depth when it comes to cooperation with other
stakeholders and the government, what their influence is on the decisions to be made and whether
they are incorporated in the future plans for the city. As a closure questions they will be asked
whether they are proud of Valkenburg, and to describe Valkenburg in one or two sentences, to find
out their image of the city; “what is Valkenburg?” (questions are based on the literature of van der
Grinten and Hildreth). Additional questions might pop up during the interview if necessary. The notes
from the interviews can be found in appendix 7.1.
2.6.2 The residents of Valkenburg
This will be done via questionnaires containing closed questions (Likert-scale). The questionnaires will
be distributed in the city itself, and via e-mail contacts of the municipality, to get a quick response.
First a few demographic questions will be asked in order to pin down the demographics of the person,
which allows for the detection of patterns and links. The questionnaire will consist of two different
perspectives; what the resident expects from the city (as a place to live), and how the resident
perceives the city to be (as a place to live). The differences in the two different perspectives will show
the points of improvement. These questionnaires will result into the image of Valkenburg as a place to
live in, as perceived by the residents.
(Insch and Florek, 2010)
The model above shows the linkage between the different elements. The expectations combined with
the perception of the reality results in the value and eventually in the place satisfaction. The higher
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
the place satisfaction, the more attached the residents feel to the destination. The fewer gaps
between the expectations and perceptions thus result in a stronger attachment and pride of their city.
In addition to the questionnaires, semi-structured interviews will be held with residents, in order to
reveal some of the underlying motives and experiences. This qualitative research also supports the
outcomes of the quantitative research.
The questionnaire will consist of two parts. The first part will be about the demographics such as sex,
age, education, length of stay in Valkenburg (as a resident) and whether they are working in the
tourism industry or not. After that they will be asked to rate a series of aspects of the city (as a place
to live) and rate their expectations of the city on these aspects, according to the Likert scale (their
expectation). After this they will get the same list and they have to rate how high they perceive it to be
in reality (their perception). This list will consist of several elements which are of importance to the
residents in order to find the right balance between the tourism industry and the living area. The list
includes aspects such as safety, parking, nature, culture, sports facilities, atmosphere, accessibility,
public transport and the balance between place of residence and tourism industry. Furthermore they
will be asked to rate their level of agreement to several statements (based on the city’s aspects).
These statements include aspects such as pride, happiness, future developments and balance in
tourism/ events/ living area. As a closure question they will be asked to grade Valkenburg as a place to
live (on a scale from 1-10). The questions are based on the research and model of Insch and Florek.
The questionnaire can be found in appendix 7.2.1.
The interviews will go more into depth but still ask similar questions as in the questionnaire. After the
questions on their background they will be asked to tell the strengths and points of improvement for
the city as a place to live (and expectations/ perceptions). After that they will be asked what they think
is typical Valkenburg, and what is not, as well as the top attractions according to them. Lastly they will
be asked whether they are proud to be living in Valkenburg, as well as happy to be living there. Other
questions could pop up during the interview, when the answer asks for a better explanation.
2.6.3 The tourists of Valkenburg
This will be done via questionnaires containing closed questions (Likert-scale). The questionnaires will
be distributed in the city itself and online via Thesistools.com, to generate quick response and to reach
the target group of people visiting Valkenburg. Several demographic questions will be asked in order
to establish the demographics of the person and to be able to detect patterns and links. The closed
questions will be asked via a Likert-scale, which allows the person to establish the level of agreement/
familiarity with a certain aspect of the city. These questionnaires will result into the image of
Valkenburg as a tourism destination, as perceived by the tourists.
In addition to the questionnaires, semi-structured interviews will be held with tourists, in order to
reveal some of the underlying motives and experiences. This qualitative research also supports the
outcomes of the quantitative research.
The questionnaire will consist of various questions. People will be asked about their sex, age,
education and where they live. Furthermore they will be asked whether they have visited Valkenburg
before and if they are day visitors or overnight tourists. They questions are vital in order to discover
patterns with the image of Valkenburg and the person’s background.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The second part will consist of a list of 10 words where the person has to choose three words that
represent Valkenburg the best, in his/ her opinion, followed by a list of statements which the person
has to rate according to the Likert scale.
They will be asked to rate their level of agreement to the statements, which include aspects such as
the residents, the atmosphere, parking possibilities, activities and events. Furthermore values such as
being active, romance, wellness and relaxation are included. They will also be asked whether they
think the tourism industry is arranged well in Valkenburg, and whether they think Valkenburg is in
need of renewal or not. As a closure question they will be asked to grade Valkenburg as a tourism
destination (on a scale from 1-10). The questions are based on the literature of van der Grinten and
Hildreth. The questionnaire can be found in appendix 7.2.2.
The interviews will go deeper into the matter but still ask the similar questions as above. The
questions will be open and therefore generate a spontaneous reaction. After the demographic
questions they will be asked what their expectations were beforehand, and how they experience it to
be now they are here. After that they will be asked about the most important aspects according to
them. They will also be asked what values they relate to Valkenburg, how they relate to Valkenburg
themselves, what they think relate to the name “Valkenburg”. During the interview there is room for
other questions which could pop up.
2.7 Conclusions
This literature review shows the complexity and diversity of the study to image and identity. Many
authors have discussed and are still discussing how this relatively new study should be approached.
Since it is an intangible subject it is difficult to research and therefore it provides food for thought.
After reading various articles and literature on the matter, it becomes clear that there are many
factors that influence the identity and image. The key to success is to cooperate and work and
communicate as a whole. Not only the municipality and tourism board should reflect the desired
identity, it is also vital to have the support of the local entrepreneurs, associations and of course the
ambassadors of the city, the residents. The unity that should be formed by these stakeholders will
provide a solid foundation and create a balanced environment, which is a great foundation in order to
achieve the desired identity. The city should not only communicate that it is good and worth visiting/
investing in, it should also prove its worth! It is important to align the policies, investments and
communications with each other in order to create that place worth living in, worth investing in and of
course worth visiting. All stakeholders should be proud of working and living there, supporting the
efforts of the city to achieve higher goals and show the world that they are indeed what they say they
are.
This thesis will research whether Valkenburg is up to the task and is cooperating together as a whole.
Are all stakeholders familiar with the desired identity, and do they support this? Do they have
influence in the decision making and plans for the future? On the other hand, is the tourism business
not affecting the city as a place of residence, are the residents still happy to live there? And are they
proud of their city? Do they share the vision and do they welcome their visitors or do they rather see it
otherwise? Lastly, do the tourists appreciate what the city is doing and do they recognize the identity
of Valkenburg? All of these questions will lead to the grand question, does Valkenburg has a positive
identity and image? Or are there gaps in between, and is there a need for improvement?
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The research and its outcomes will be outlined in the Gap-analysis of Jaap van der Grinten. Since this
analysis is based on organizations, one cannot simply copy the same format. Therefore the author will
adjust it and use it as a guideline. The identity of the city and its municipality will be formed by having
interviews and observing the city and its developments. Furthermore the values that the city strives
for could be derived from analyzing the interviews, marketing plans and developments that are taking
place. Furthermore the destination analysis will provide information on what the strengths and
weaknesses of the city are. Both tourists and residents will be questioned on their perspective on the
city in order to create an overview of their image. After this it is possible to draw conclusions based on
the ‘gaps’ that appear (or not) between the identity and the image of the city.
Since the Gap-analysis is from an organizational point of view, it is important to take into account the
other frameworks on image, identity and place branding. The formation of a place its image comes
forth out of several elements, as Gunn (1972) stated. Therefore research will focus on the decisions
and future plans from the government, as well as the marketing and promotion of the city.
Furthermore tourists will be asked what their personal experience with the city was, and why they
visit the city. On the contrary, residents will also be asked how they perceive their city as a place to
live, and whether they have confidence in its management.
As Moilanen and Rainisto (2009) stated, the destination brand is a combination of various elements.
This is also found in the CI Hexagon of Simon Anholt (2002), which will be used in order to illustrate
the recommendations made for the future. As the various frameworks show, it is important to align
the different channels and aspects that form the destination, in order to succeed in creating a strong
identity for the city.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
3. Valkenburg, the destination
3.1 The History
Valkenburg aan de Geul is a community in the south of Limburg, in the far south of the Netherlands.
Coat of arms, flag and logo of the municipality Valkenburg aan de Geul (Gemeente Valkenburg)
Above one can see the coat of arms, flag and logo of the municipality Valkenburg aan de Geul. The
municipality consists of several centres namely: Berg, Broekhem, Geulhem, Houthem, OudValkenburg, Schin op Geul, Schoonbron, Sibbe, Sint Gerlach, Strabeek, Strucht, Terblijt, Valkenburg,
Vilt, Walem and Ijzeren. Throughout this report the author will make use of the name Valkenburg to
address the municipality (see appendix 7.3 for a map of Valkenburg).
In January 2012, Valkenburg has 16.945 inhabitants (see appendix 7.4) and a total surface of 3.690
hectares. The group of under 20 years old consists of 3.085 people, which is around 18% of the total.
The group between 20 and 65 years old consist of 9.745 people, which is around 57%. The group
above 65 years old consists of 4.115 people, which is around 24% (StatLine, CBS, 2012). The division
between men and women in 2010 was 49% and 51% respectively (Gemeente op Maat, CBS, 2011). The
total length of the roads is 106km. The city is well connected and close to the larger city of Maastricht,
also famous for its tourism industry. Valkenburg has a train station (the oldest still functioning one in
the Netherlands) with connections to Maastricht, Heerlen, Kerkrade and Aken in Germany
(Municipality Valkenburg, 2012).
Valkenburg has had a rich history and communal life dates back to the Roman times. Several artefacts
and constructions confirm this. The first written use of the name Valkenburg dates back to 1041. The
German king Hendrik III offered his cousin four villages, one of them was Valkenburg. Historians
believe that the current village of Oud-Valkenburg is the one that they are referring to in the
documents.
Many attacks on the city have destroyed many of the buildings of the old days, including the famous
castle of Valkenburg, which is not more than a ruin, yet still a top tourist attraction these days. There
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
are just a few city walls and gates left nowadays. Valkenburg is no longer a fortress, but remains
important in administrative terms.
Around mid-nineteenth century a new source of income arises: tourism. Day visitors and overnight
tourists discover the wealth of unique and pristine nature in the Valkenburg area and decide to start
spending a day of short holiday here. The number of hotels in Valkenburg quickly rises, at that time
there were only three yet.
The new rail track Valkenburg-Aken in 1853 was a huge development in terms of infrastructure. The
city was not yet easily accessible in those times and therefore this was a huge step forward for the
destination of today. Valkenburg has grown to become one of the top destinations in the region, with
over a million overnight stays a year, and a large number of day visitors (Municipality Valkenburg,
2012).
Another sign of the importance of Valkenburg’s tourism industry is the Vereniging voor Vreemdelingen
Verkeer or in short the VVV. This is the local tourism office of Valkenburg and it is the first known
tourism office in the Netherlands and even in Europe. The VVV Valkenburg, or as it was then called
VVV “Het Geuldal” was established in 1885 (Amsterdam Toerisme & Congres Bureau, 2012).
Nowadays the VVV is still of great importance and works closely with the municipality and other
stakeholders to ensure that the tourism industry in Valkenburg will prevail, after all it covers 80% of
the local economy (Municipality Valkenburg, 2012).
The castle ruin of Valkenburg
(Source: www.fluweelengrot.nl, 2012)
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The destination analysis will provide an overview of the tourism industry in Valkenburg. It gives an
insight in how the city’ industry functions at the moment, as well as the developments that will occur
in the future. Furthermore the various stakeholders are described, as well as their inter linkages. The
analysis will be a foundation for the primary research, in order to draw conclusions and make
recommendations for the future.
3.2 Tourism Demand
Valkenburg has been a tourism destination for a very long period of time. However the last couple of
years the city is stagnating, partially due to the financial crisis but also because of the lack of
development in the last years. The city used to be a very popular destination in the 70’s/ 80’s/ 90’s.
Many Dutch tourists have visited the city at least once. It was (and still is) a mass tourism holiday
destination in the summer since it is in the Netherlands, and therefore cheaper than a holiday abroad.
Valkenburg used to be and still gets flooded with tourists during the summer season.
However this image has changed, the city wanted to spread the tourists over the year and wanted to
get rid of the typical image of an “eating and drinking” holiday destination. This has had an effect on
the tourism industry in various ways; the tourists are indeed better spread over the year, with great
sports events and of course the Christmas period. Due to a lack of the necessary developments and
ageing buildings, the city still displays the image of the years in the past. The municipality is actively
trying to reshape the city by upgrading buildings, infrastructure and hotels, but there is still a long way
to go.
3.2.1 The overnight stays
To give an insight in the development over the years below one will find the numbers and figures (in
appendix 7.5) of Valkenburg’s tourism industry.
In 1994 there were 1.163.217 overnight stays throughout the year. From there on the industry went
into decline which is shown in the figure of appendix 7.5.
Here one can clearly see that the industry went into decline from 1996. It took untill 2005 before the
industry recovered again, and finally untill 2011, where it almost reached back the point of 1994, with
1.159.517 overnight stays that year. One could say that Valkenburg is in stagnation at the moment.
And if there will not be any changes the industry will be back into decline in the near future.
The second figure in appendix 7.5 shows the overnight stays divided by type of accommodation.
Hotels have traditionally been the biggest contributor. The differences can be found in the decline in
use of camping sites, since the city is trying to minimize this and replace the sites with other
accommodation such as apartments and bungalows. Since 2004 there is a big increase of usage of
bungalows and apartments, mainly due to the Landal Green Parks, which is settled on top of the
Cauberg. It is a popular type of accommodation in Valkenburg due to the privacy and rest, which are
also elements of the city’s pull factors.
The last figure in appendix 7.5 shows the overnight stays spread over the year. It compares the
differences of the years 1996 and 2011. One can easily see that the tourists are better spread over the
year now, with a large decrease in the summer season and large increase in the Christmas/ New Year’s
period. The intensity of the summer season has decreased which allows tourism and food/ beverage
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
companies to function better throughout the year, rather than having to earn all during the few
months in the summer.
Valkenburg has also been a popular destination in the summer, due to its natural environment and of
course the attractive city centre with lots of activities, bars and restaurants to visit. Another important
period of the year is around Christmas and New Years, when the Christmas markets attract numerous
visitors from the Netherlands as well as from foreign countries such as Germany and Belgium. Over
the year the city has made a name with its Christmas theme.
Besides these two peak season there are also numerous events taking place in Valkenburg throughout
the year, such as the World Cup cycling and Red Bull Crashed Ice, which attract lots of people as well.
In this way the city ensures a more stabile flow of tourists throughout the year. There is still room for
improvement but the city has made an enormous step already.
3.2.2 The markets
Although there are no specific details on the markets that visit Valkenburg, there are indications given
by the major stakeholders of the city, as well as the municipality. The vast majority of the tourists are
Dutch (roughly 90%). This market is however decreasing over the past years. The other 10% is made
up of mainly Belgian and German tourists, due to the proximity of Valkenburg in relation to Belgium
and Germany (Municipality of Valkenburg/ Landal Green Parks/ VVV Zuid Limburg/ Provincie Limburg,
2012). Around 5% of the other tourists are from Belgium, while around 3% is German. The other 2%
comprises English tourists and tourists from other countries. There is still great potential in the
neighbouring countries of Belgium and Germany, due to this proximity with Valkenburg. However,
Valkenburg is not yet that known outside of the Netherlands, for this reason the VVV Zuid-Limburg
started a campaign in Germany, to generate more interest and knowledge on the area (VVV ZuidLimburg, 2012).
The majority of the Dutch tourists comes from the North West (Randstad area) where there is little
nature and rest in comparison to the area of Valkenburg.
Valkenburg is aiming for 55+ tourists, couples, as well as families with children. However there are also
various other markets like sport clubs or groups of friends that visit the city. Due to the many events
that take place in Valkenburg, it is also a great place for them to visit (Municipality Valkenburg/ Landal
Green Parks, 2012).
The 55+ market is looking for relaxation and fun activities to participate in while going on a short
holiday. They have relatively more disposable income and leisure time than younger markets and are
therefore a great market to have. Due to the ageing population in the Netherlands it is also a growing
market and therefore interesting to target. Based on research conducted by Tourism Ireland in 2004,
the expected growth of the 55+ market in the Netherlands is 53% in the period 2000-2020. This
growing market comes with certain demands and needs in order to cater for them. Important factors
are the need for good health facilities on the spot, as well as fitness and wellness facilities, due to the
desire to stay fit and vibrant. Furthermore it will become important to offer easily accessible
attractions and other facilities such as restaurants, accommodations, public transport and so on.
Routes should be well signed and information readily available for the tourist, on the spot. (Tourism
Ireland, 2004)
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The other markets such as couples and families with children enjoy the vibrant city centre of
Valkenburg and the many activities that come with it. Furthermore Valkenburg has a beautiful
landscape surrounding where people can relax, hike or cycle. The city has also been a popular
destination for groups who are visiting for the weekend, enjoying the nightlife and activities in and
outside the city. Valkenburg is also a popular sports destination, with great events such as the World
Cup Cycling and Amstel Gold Race Experience, which attract lots of tourists from the Netherlands as
well as foreigners. Furthermore Valkenburg is known for its Christmas markets, not only by Dutch
tourists but also Germans and Belgians living close to the border.
RECRON
Another way of looking for the markets is developed by RECRON. It classifies markets based on their
lifestyles, rather than age/ income/ education etc. RECRON is the association of Recreation
entrepreneurs in the Netherlands, striving for a better entrepreneurial working climate in the tourism
and leisure sector (RECRON, 2012). It segmented five different “experience worlds”, where every
world has its own characteristics and demands. Valkenburg is mostly in the “Abundant Yellow” and
“Cosy Lime” group. The Province of Limburg is already working together with RECRON, in order to
identify the markets within the province. This allows for better marketing activities and strategies as
well as better market-product combinations for the future. The south of Limburg also identifies the
Yellow and Lime group as the two largest groups, with respectively 25% and 22%. “Adventurous
Purple” comes right after that, with 20%. (Toeristische Trendrapportage Limburg 2011-2012, Provincie
Limburg, 2012)
“Abundant Yellow”
This group is the spontaneous, cosy and social group. They are the real holiday makers. A holiday does
not have to extreme, as long as it is active, sportive, cosy and surprising. Contact with others such as
family, friends and relatives, is desired and fun. This group searches for camping sites and bungalow
parks where facilities are relatively good and where there is enough to do for everyone. Abundant
Yellow is a large group in the Netherlands!
“Cosy Lime”
This group is just as the yellow group interested in cosiness and sports, but it could all be a bit calmer,
and it does not have to be that long. The family is important. Holidays for this group means being free,
enjoying the moment and relaxation, away from the daily routine and doing fun things with the family;
cycling, barbecuing or playing a game. A bungalow park or camping site in the Netherlands gives a true
holiday feeling, but often the Cosy Lime group needs to watch their expenses.
“Adventurous Purple”
This group belongs to the people that wish to experience something new and discover new things
during their holiday. Normal is not good enough for them. They are looking for special experiences. It
may be a bit wild, like sleeping in a tree hut or survival tent. However it could also be the experience
of luxury and exclusiveness. Adventurous Purple worry more about themselves than about others,
individual activities and products are therefore more attractive to them than the “group happening”.
(Translated from the website RECRON Innovatie Campagne, 2012)
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
3.2.3 Length of stay
Traditionally tourists that visited Valkenburg would stay for a few weeks in the summer season.
However these times have changed, not only due to the transformation of Valkenburg’s desired
identity but also due to the trend of taking shorter but more frequent holidays (Municipality
Valkenburg, 2012). Tourists tend to visit the city for a few days, midweek of weekend. Based on the
numbers of Landal Green Parks the average tourist stays for 2-4 nights.
3.2.4 Expenditure
Although the province of Limburg ranked 1st in 2011 in terms of tourist expenditures, the expenditure
per person a day has decreased (Toeristische trendrapportage 2011-2012, Provincie Limburg, 2012).
This displays the total of the province, however it is also interesting in the case of Valkenburg. The city
wishes to pursue a better quality and try to reach markets with more disposable income than the
lower income markets that used to visit the city back in the days, during the summer season. The
municipality strives for a higher expenditure per person.
Specific numbers on expenditures for Valkenburg are not known but there are numbers on the South
of Limburg. It shows that the total amount of holidays and overnight stays have increased with 15%
(2010-2011), while the expenditures per person per day have decreased with 8% (2010-2011). It
shows that there is a market but the expenditures need to be stimulated in order to reach the full
potential of the growing tourism market. (Toeristische trendrapportage 2011-2012, Provincie Limburg,
2012)
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
3.3 Tourism Supply
3.3.1 Destination mix
Attractions
Valkenburg has many attractions that have attracted tourists for decades. The city centre is probably
one of the biggest pull factors, just as the Christmas markets and great sport events during the year.
Below one will find a list of the main attractions of the city.
-
Holland Casino
Thermae 2000
“Cauberg” mountain
City centre
Chateau St Gerlach
Marl caves
Fun park “De Valkenier”
Charcoal mine
Christmas markets
Castle ruin
Roman catacombs
Sport events (Amstel Gold Race, Red Bull Crashed Ice, World Cup Cycling etc.)
Cable way
The open air theatre
(VVV Zuid Limburg, 2012)
These are the main attractions of the city, of course there are many more. Due to its rich history and
tourism experience there are other things to do such as visiting a museum, areas of interest and the
beautiful landscapes surrounding Valkenburg. A great pull factor for Valkenburg is also its city centre,
which is filled with tourists and residents whenever the weather is good. Also during the Christmas
period is provides a perfect setting with its many restaurants and bars.
Natural attractions
Due to its natural setting Valkenburg has a unique selling point in comparison to other cities in the
Netherlands. Its landscape and surroundings are astonishing and create the feeling of being “abroad”.
Of course the Cauberg is another landmark of the city, with the Thermae 2000, Holland Casino and
Landal Green Parks located there. Also during the events the Cauberg is often incorporated.
Furthermore Valkenburg has the marl caves, where there are tours and activities to participate in.
These caves are another unique selling point for the city, which is well used by the government and
entrepreneurs. With its unique location, Valkenburg is considered a very green city, especially for
Dutch standards.
Activity-Based attractions
Valkenburg is famous for cycling and therefore also attracts lots of people that are training or just
want to go out for a day. Due to the Cauberg it provides a perfect area to cycle. Furthermore there are
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
tours in the caves by mountain bike, the fun park “De Valkenier” and many hiking possibilities for
whoever wants to go out. Tourists can also go up with the cable way, to enjoy sledding on the
“Rodelbaan”.
Cultural attractions
Due to its rich history the city has a lot to offer. There are the Roman catacombs, the castles, the ruins,
mills, monasteries and churches, as well as the city centre and the open air theatre. There is
something for everyone (VVV Zuid-Limburg, 2012).
Facilities
Accommodation
Valkenburg has 90 hotels and another 100 pensions or other accommodation providers. For a small
city as it is it caters for a lot of tourists. Especially due to the high tides back in the days, the
accommodation sector expanded rapidly. One will find the following accommodation throughout the
city, with a high density in the city centre. (Toekomstvisie 2030; Een verkenning, Municipality
Valkenburg, 2007)
-
Hotels
Camping sites
Apartments
Bungalows
Pensions
Bed & Breakfast
Food & Beverage
Due to the mass tourism destination that Valkenburg became decades ago, the food & beverage
sector expanded rapidly as well. The city offers around 40 restaurants, 35 cafeterias and 60 cafes or
bars. Especially during the summer season and holidays (including the Christmas period), the city
centre is packed with tourists and locals enjoying the many possibilities that are there. It is a great pull
factor of Valkenburg and is well appreciated by tourists. It provides a cosy, romantic setting with a
burgundian lifestyle; it is where the city became famous with within the Netherlands. (Toekomstvisie
2030; Een verkenning, Municipality Valkenburg, 2007)
Supporting Facilities
Due to its large tourism industry, Valkenburg has a lot of supporting facilities. This includes many
souvenir shops, markets and clothing shops for the tourists to enjoy. One of the bigger markets of
Valkenburg is the “Bokkemarkt”, which attracts thousands of people.
Infrastructure
Valkenburg’s infrastructure is relatively good but there is room for improvement. At the moment the
city’s government is actively restructuring the city centre and with that improving the sewer system
and routing. Due to the high volume of tourists visiting the city (which only has around 17.000
residents) the infrastructure is put to the test. If tourism would be excluded the infrastructure would
be more than sufficient, however during the peak seasons and during events, it becomes a problem.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Especially traffic and parking are two major problems that occur whenever there is a flood of tourists
coming in. The city tries to resolve these issues by tackling the problems in the city centre, which will
change the routing and offer extra parking possibilities. It is difficult since the city does not have the
budget for a place catering for so many tourists. Only the time will tell whether the new city centre
plan is sufficient for the incoming tourists. The city centre plan will be elaborated upon in the chapter
“Tourism Planning & Development”.
Next to the parking and traffic problems there is also an outdated city centre in terms of buildings,
pipelines and power supply. The municipality is actively stimulating people and entrepreneurs to
develop further in order to not get behind, as well as preserve the authentic feeling of the city. Luckily
there are no major issues with regards to the sewer system, power or water supply.
Health care is readily available in the area, as well as private clinics and other facilities for special care
and treatments. For both tourists and residents this is important in case something happens.
Valkenburg is also regarded a safe city. The most issues regarding safety are in the weekend and on
other festive evenings, when people are drinking and the risks of fights and other types of disorder
increase.
Transportation
Transportation in Valkenburg is well arranged. There is a train station (the oldest, still functioning train
station in the Netherlands), and a bus station which caters for the needs of the tourists and residents.
It is well connected to Maastricht and Heerlen, as well as routes to Germany and Belgium. It has a
good connection to the highway and also offers many possibilities for hikers and cyclists. Of course
there are also taxis who can take one anywhere one would like.
However, the city centre of Valkenburg is relatively small and thus walking is preferred by many.
Especially in the city centre it is easy to get around on foot, especially after the developments of the
new centre plan, where routing will be improved for the convenience of both tourist and resident.
During the bigger events the city gets so crowded that often the traffic is jammed, and trains or busses
are full. The city tries to resolve these problems by offering parking possibilities outside of the city, for
example at the MECC in Maastricht. From there on shuttle busses will take the people to the centre of
Valkenburg, however this method is not ideal and not preferred by many. The government is actively
trying the resolve these issues during events. (Municipality Valkenburg, 2012)
Hospitality
The hospitality and tourism industry is vital for Valkenburg’s economy and it is therefore of great
importance for the government and the city’s stakeholders to keep on developing their city and its
facilities. New strategies and developments all contribute to the desire of a higher expenditure per
person per day.
In general the tourists are quite fond of the locals of Valkenburg, who are open and friendly and
welcome the tourists in their city. They understand the importance of the industry. The locals are of
course the ambassadors of the city and therefore of great importance for the tourism industry.
Nowadays it is important to find the connection between the entrepreneurs, the municipality and the
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residents, who all have an interest in the city on a different level. To find the balance between these
groups is the key to success, and the foundation for a healthy and pleasant atmosphere.
3.3.2 SWOT Analysis
Strengths
“Famous” tourism destination
Long history and affiliation with the tourism industry
Unique natural setting (Cauberg, caves, landscape)
Hospitable, friendly locals
Diversity in activities, attractions and facilities
History of the city
Cosy city centre
A sense of “being abroad”
Host of great events such as Amstel Gold Race and World Cup Cycling
“Cycling capital of the Netherlands”
“The Christmas city of the Netherlands”
Weaknesses
Outdated (buildings, attractions)
Old image of “party-destination”
New Image of dull destination, for the elderly
Major parking and traffic problems during events
Opportunities
Ageing population in the Netherlands (growing market 55+)
Known tourism destination, “everybody knows Valkenburg”
Wellness theme
Sports industry and events
Proximity and good connection to Belgium/ Germany
Threats
Affiliation with old image of party destination
No major new developments to keep up with modern day trends
Conclusions
Valkenburg is a famous tourism destination that is known and visited by many people in the
Netherlands. It is not only famous due to its rapid growth a few decades ago but also regarding its
great events and cycling culture. Of course it is also located in a unique natural setting which is one of
their great pull factors. Valkenburg should focus on its strengths including their affiliation with sports
and cycling in particular. Furthermore they are known for the Christmas markets and the marl caves.
These combined are the unique selling points of Valkenburg, together with the cosy city centre filled
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
with many restaurants, bars and friendly locals. This great diversity of the city provides a perfect decor
for a quality tourism destination. By combining the right products with the right markets, there is great
potential for the future.
The new wellness theme complements the assets of the city and also targets a growing market of 55+
people, that are interested in being healthy and enjoying life. It is important to have a clear and
detailed vision for this theme, in order to compete with others and to set out a defined path for the
future, this is important for the city as well as its entrepreneurs and residents.
The city is outdated and needs to be further developed in the near future. The new centre plan from
the municipality will tackle traffic and parking problems as well as develop other projects such as a
shopping mall. This will improve the quality of the infrastructure, the routing and of course the image
of the city. It is important to also upgrade accommodations and restaurants/ bars, in order to preserve
the authenticity of the city and to not let it pauperize.
The city needs to make good use of their status as a tourism destination. They are well known within
the Netherlands and this should be seen as an advantage. Being a mass tourism destination,
Valkenburg has catered for many tourists in the past, and could also do so in the future. This does not
mean that it has to stick to its old image of “party destination”, but they could improve the quality and
product offering, and so create a different experience while still enjoying the numerous amounts of
tourists that visit the city. This is also one of the factors why the city centre is appreciated by many,
since its crowdedness creates a pleasant and cosy atmosphere.
Lastly the proximity with Germany and Belgium provides an opportunity for potential markets to
target in the future. Marketing campaigns have been set up in Germany already, but no significant
numbers are coming to Valkenburg yet. The brand “Valkenburg” should be well communicated to
these markets abroad in order to attract them to the city.
3.3.3 The Broad Context Model (Weaver)
SMT – Sustainable Mass Tourism (see appendix 7.6 for the model)
Valkenburg is a mass tourism destination. The city has grown rapidly in the past, and therefore
developments have occurred accordingly. Back in those days the regulations and restrictions were not
yet there and so developments were done wherever the entrepreneur found suitable. Over the years
they have learned that their uniqueness and natural surroundings are of great importance for the city
and its tourism industry. Therefore it is will maintained and controlled in terms of new projects and
developments. It is important to keep the authenticity and create that nature experience that many
come to seek. Therefore one has to bear in mind that this experience is not undermined if a certain
building, parking area or activities are taking place there. Even a quad biking trail could already disrupt
the tourists experience if they come to hike in a peaceful environment (Province Limburg, 2012). It is
therefore vital to find the balance in new development and natural surroundings.
Lastly the city will need to find solutions to the problems during events, since there is serious pressure
on aspects such as parking, public space, natural environment and the convenience of the residents.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
3.4 Tourism Impact Studies
3.4.1 Economic impacts
The tourism industry is an enormous contributor to the local economy of Valkenburg. It is the largest
sector in the region, taking account for 80% of the total local economy’s value. It therefore has an
enormous impact on the city, the employment and of course the economy (Interview John Wauben,
Municipality Valkenburg, 2012).
To demonstrate the importance of the tourism industry in terms of jobs, in appendix 7.7 one will see a
figure displaying the employment in the tourism sector and the other sectors. One can see that in
2011 the tourism industry provides a bit more than 3000 jobs, about half of the total. This of course
has an enormous impact on the economy and therefore the industry needs to be developed and well
managed in order not to risk those jobs (Municipality Valkenburg, 2012).
Thanks to the many tourists coming into the city, the parking revenue is also substantial. It is therefore
also of great importance that there are enough parking possibilities, which are well maintained. In
appendix 7.7 one can see that the parking revenue in 2011 was, despite the decrease over the past
years, more than 1.700.000 euro.
The tourist tax revenue is also of great importance for the city to generate income. The last figure in
appendix 7.7 shows that there has been steady revenue over the years, being more than 1.400.000
euro in 2011.
3.4.2 Socio-cultural impacts
Valkenburg is tourism, and therefore the residents know how important the industry is. It affects all of
their lives. Most of the residents live in Valkenburg because of its vibrant tourism industry. Especially
during the peak seasons and holidays the centre is packed with tourists. Normally it is not a problem,
solely during the bigger events, where parking becomes an issue and residents cannot do their normal
grocery shopping any longer. It is a big issue and there are many complaints about the fact that the
city gets too crowded. On the other hand the residents know that this is reality in Valkenburg, and the
events are only a couple of days throughout the year.
Because of the size of the tourism industry, there is friction between the residents and tourists on
occasion. This is mainly caused by the parking problem as well as that some residents cannot just go
out for a coffee in the centre since only eaters are desired by the cafe/ restaurant (Author’s own
interactions with residents, 2012).
3.4.3 Environmental impacts
Tourism of course has an impact on the natural environment of Valkenburg. It therefore needs to well
managed and regulated in order not to neglect the nature. There are several landmarks of the city
which are naturally there, such as the famous Cauberg and the river the Geul. Furthermore there are
the hills and green areas which attract many tourists and sportspeople throughout the year. So far no
major issues have occurred but it is important to maintain the area, and not let new developments
and projects take in its place. It provides a pristine area of rest and beauty, pull factors of the city,
especially for city people. The municipality of Valkenburg as well as the province of Limburg realizes
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that these areas should be cherished. Therefore decisions relating those areas are well researched and
discussed. In the past the developments occurred on a natural basis, with no specific guidelines, and
therefore no extra care was taken with regards to the natural environment. Nowadays the knowledge
has improved and better communication allows for better strategies and developments regarding the
city and its environment.
3.5 Tourism Planning & Development
Valkenburg has different stakeholders, all having their own role and influence on the tourism industry.
Below one will find the most important ones, what they do and how they are linked together.
3.5.1 The Stakeholders
Province of Limburg
The province of Limburg of course has more sectors to control other than the tourism industry.
However for this report the tourism industry is important to understand the connection between the
stakeholders.
The province of Limburg operates as a stimulator for the industry. It guides the local tourism
associations (the VVV’s) so that they can promote the area for tourism purposes. The province of
Limburg also researches the industry and publishes a yearly report (“Toeristische Trendrapportage
Limburg”), which includes numbers and figures as well as the goals which were set in order to improve
the industry. For now the province of Limbug has set goals for 2015, where they want to increase the
expenditures and increase the market share of the province within the Netherlands. It monitors these
goals in order to evaluate them and adjust where needed.
They cooperate closely with the local tourism associations within the province, as well as the
municipalities. Furthermore they stimulate entrepreneurs and help them by providing workshops and
subsidize innovative ideas.
The province has a function to stimulate the industry, connect parties and stakeholders with each
other and provide subsidies for entrepreneurs to develop themselves. (Interview Ilja CastermansGodfried, Province of Limburg, 2012/ Toeristische Trendrapportage Limburg 2011-2012, Province of
Limburg, 2012)
VVV Zuid-Limburg
The VVV Zuid-Limburg is the local tourism association for the south of Limburg. They are responsible
for developing and promoting the tourism industry within their region. This includes the promotion of
the south of Limburg in total, as well as the areas within that region. Valkenburg belongs to the south
of Limburg and is the only city that is specifically mentioned and sort of stands on itself due to the
notoriety it has. Maastricht has a separate tourism association and is therefore not included.
The tourism associations from different regions in the province also cooperate together in order to
develop the industry inter-regionally. They have created the marketing campaign “Liefde voor het
leven” (Love for life), which promotes the province of Limburg. This campaign has been set up by the
cooperation of the tourism associations in Limburg, the “Samenwerkende VVV’s Limburg”. The VVV
Zuid-Limburg also created a Smartphone app where information is given on the tourism industry of
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the region. In this way tourists can easily find locations, information, activities and things to do while
visiting.
The VVV Zuid-Limburg is a non profit organization, with the government owning 20% of the shares,
while the other 80% comes from entrepreneurs and guests. Profits are used to optimize the marketing
activities and information. Their vision is to be the striving force and the centre of tourism and
recreation in the south of Limburg. They wish to create a solid foundation and market for the tourism
industry. The VVV Zuid-Limburg is part of the VVV Nederland, which is the tourism association of the
Netherlands.
The association has three different ‘markets’ to serve which are the municipalities, the entrepreneurs
and of course the residents and (potential) guests of the cities.
The department of marketing & events are actively trying to put the region ‘on the map’. They are
working on product-market combinations and communication development in order to sell and
promote the region to tourists and residents. They wish to strengthen the image of the region by
means of promotion and campaigns. The department information & reservations provides information
on the tourism and recreation industry and also provides the opportunity to make reservations for
accommodation or activities. The association also has several branches in the region to supply
information and promotional brochures. Furthermore there are several “Limburg Shops”, which offer
local specialities and promote the products from the region. The board of the association is made up
of members of the municipalities and entrepreneurs from the region, in order to have influence on
what is going on. Furthermore the board consists of a neutral chairman and financial expert.
The association works closely together with entrepreneurs and the municipality. They provide
information and expertise on the tourism industry in order to develop new ideas. The expertise of the
VVV is also important for the city marketing of Valkenburg’s municipality. Furthermore they provide
information to the tourist and customers.
They also cooperate with German partners in order to stimulate the German market to come and visit
Valkenburg. This campaign will hopefully attract new markets. (Interview Nicole Schurgers, VVV ZuidLimburg, 2012/ Marketing-activiteitenplan, VVV Zuid-Limburg, 2012)
Municipality Valkenburg
The municipality Valkenburg is the local government of the city. It is the decision maker in the process,
and is involved with all parties in order to develop and manage the city. It cooperates with the
province, the VVV, the entrepreneurs and of course the residents. By stimulating and setting up new
projects they wish to develop the city and find the right balance between all parties involved in order
to create a healthy environment to live, work and visit.
It stimulates entrepreneurs by having one-on-one meetings to find solutions and ideas to develop, as
well as provide subsidies for innovative ideas. Furthermore they manage and develop the
infrastructure, which is under pressure due to the large sized events throughout the year; this also
counts for the parking possibilities. The municipality also stimulates different parties to work together
in order to create a sense of belonging and better cooperation. Some examples are the VOC (which
will be elaborated upon below), the association for the Christmas period and the association for
Events.
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It is difficult for the municipality to keep up with the tourism market, due to the financial possibilities.
The municipality hosts around 17.000 residents and does therefore not have the financial means to
invest in a tourism destination that welcomes significantly higher numbers of tourists. For this reason
they also started cooperation with other cities such as Maastricht. In this way they can develop
projects which would otherwise not be possible.
The municipality is also in charge of handing out licenses and permits, collecting taxes and attracting
new companies for the city. They strive for a higher quality offer in terms of shops, restaurants, hotels
and speciality stores.
They also organize meetings with the different suburbs of the city, to listen to their needs and provide
information on the development going on.
Lastly they are also responsible of the city marketing and events, and cooperate with the other
stakeholders in order to find the right path and desired identity for the future. (Interview John
Wauben, Municipality Valkenburg, 2012)
VOC (Valkenburg Ondernemers Collectief)
The VOC is the Valkenburg Entrepreneurs Collective, the largest association of entrepreneurs in
Valkenburg. This association is a cooperation of the various entrepreneurs in Valkenburg, who discuss
and evaluate new ideas and decisions. Their cooperation also increases their influence and creates
opportunities for them to invest in. The Christmas period is just an example of how the cooperation
between entrepreneurs and government becomes a great success. The Christmas markets and
activities at the end of the year attract thousands of people from the Netherlands and other countries.
It is a fruitful event for the entrepreneurs and therefore interesting to invest in. Furthermore the
association allows them to develop ideas, show their sense of belonging and have a say in the decision
making process of the municipality.
Next to the VOC there are also specific associations regarding specific Events during the year.
(Interview John Wauben, municipality Valkenburg, 2012/ Valkenburg Ondernemers Collectief, 2012)
Local enterprises (eg. Holland Casino, Landal Green Parks, Thermae2000)
The local enterprises, in specific the Holland Casino, Landal Green Parks and Thermae 2000, which are
the bigger ones in Valkenburg, have an influence on the city’s development as well. The previous
mentioned work closely together with the municipality, province and other organizations in order to
develop the tourism industry and to see where the opportunities lie for them to invest in. Especially
during events these stakeholders support the municipality and invest in the events to take place. They
are vital for the city’s tourism industry and also provide lots of job opportunities. Since they are big
employers, they do have a significant influence on the developments. The municipality takes them
serious and listens to what they have to say. They also support the future plans and try to cooperate
together. The Holland Casino and Thermae 2000 for example, work together on new packages related
to the new Wellness theme.
The smaller enterprises and entrepreneurs in the city of course also have a say and have regular
meetings with the municipality. However there are some concerns since some of the smaller
entrepreneurs do not want to cooperate and have the idea that the revenue will remain (they rely on
their times when the city was booming). This forms problems in terms of developments as well as
sponsorships for the bigger events such as the Christmas period, where financial means are necessary
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in order to make it a success. (Interview John Wauben, municipality Valkenburg, 2012/ Interview Bart
Kurris, Holland Casino, 2012/ Interview Tanya Reinards, Landal Green Parks, 2012)
Residents
To quote the municipality Valkenburg; “the residents are top ambassadors of the city”. They are the
ones that create the experience on the spot, they need to feel home in their own city and should
welcome the tourists with open arms. Nowadays it is more important to include the residents in the
decision making process, and ensure that there is a good balance between the tourism industry and
the living area. As stated before, the municipality has meetings with the suburbs of the city, to ensure
that the residents are heard. They are entitled to express their opinions but in the end many residents
have the feeling that the local government still sticks to its own path. (Interview John Wauben,
municipality Valkenburg, 2012/ Author’s own interactions with residents, Valkenburg, 2012)
3.5.2 Destination life cycle
Valkenburg has rich history in tourism and therefore it is also not strange that they are currently in the
stagnation/ decline phase (see appendix 7.8 for the model). They have had their peak times around 20
years ago, when the city was booming and the destination became a top favourite among the Dutch
tourists. Due to the lack of developments and the desire to change their image, the city is currently in
desperate need for rejuvenation. In the next subchapter “Future Development” one will read about
some of the developments that will take place in order to rejuvenate.
The numbers on the tourism industry mentioned earlier, show that the incoming tourists are
stagnating/ declining are therefore development is needed. The city’s government is aware of this and
is actively trying to stimulate those developments. If they succeed the city still has great potential, in
the author’s opinion. Due to the proximity with Germany and Belgium there are still new markets to
explore and target. Furthermore the new Wellness theme will attract a different type of tourist to the
city. After upgrading the infrastructure, parking, buildings and accommodations, the city will have a
fresher look. Due to its unique location and natural assets they are able to restructure the tourism
business and develop the city further.
3.5.3 Future development
As stated before in this report, Valkenburg is in desperate need for renewal and development. The
municipality and other stakeholders acknowledge this. The various parties are therefore actively
thinking of new ideas and developments that could bring Valkenburg back to the top.
It is important to know that Valkenburg has had an enormous growth about 20-30 years ago, where
developments were rapidly taking place with little supervision and control. Due to those financially
“good” years, the entrepreneurs did not see the necessity to upgrade and invest in new developments
and ideas, since tourists were coming in anyway. Nowadays the city still displays the image of the old
times, and is therefore outdated and in need for renewal. The municipality has made several plans
with other parties involved and are trying to restructure and upgrade the city in order to have a better
level of quality and restore the authentic atmosphere of the city.
First of all there is the plan to tackle the problems in the city centre. In Dutch it is called the “Centrum
Plan Valkenburg” (Municipality Valkenburg, 2012). This new plan is already taking place, and is
expected to be finished in about 2 to 3 years from now. The centre plan focuses on the unique selling
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
points of the city of Valkenburg, and wishes to optimize those in order to distinguish itself from the
competition. It focuses on three different points, each with their own specific developments.
-
Valkenburg as a historic fortified city, with the only hilltop castle in the Netherlands
-
The experience of the Geul island, and the connection with the ‘green wings’ (nature)
-
The expansion of Valkenburg as a shopping destination
The focus of the plan will create and stimulate an attractive city centre which will be an impulse for
the tourism industry, the residents, the food & beverage sector as well as the job employment within
the city. The plan is expected to generate around 170 million euro in investments. This will be
beneficial for the whole municipality of Valkenburg aan de Geul.
The centre plan is part of the municipality’s vision on the future. They realize that Valkenburg needs to
be further developed in order not to be left behind and therefore needs to make decisions. They also
cooperate with the province Limburg, which contributed 7.5 million euro to be invested in this plan.
The three focus areas all have their own set of developments. First of all the city’s historic buildings
and monuments will be restored in their glory in order to create a better quality level. The facades of
the old buildings in the city centre will be restored in cooperation with the owners, in order to create
that authentic feeling. This also counts for the use of the terraces, sunshades and other objects that
contribute to the total experience and feeling when walking through the centre.
Furthermore the city centre will be developed in a way that creates a more romantic, cosy feeling.
Wide bridges will become narrow, routing will be improved and better connections will be established
with the natural surroundings of the city. They wish to make better use of their natural setting and
create an experience if one is visiting.
Lastly there is the development of the city as a shopping destination. There are plans for a new
shopping mall with an underground parking garage, which will create more possibilities to shop as well
as more parking places. The city wishes to attract speciality stores and relatively higher quality shops
to the city centre, again to create that romantic, cosy feeling. Also regional products and recipes will
be offered in order to stimulate the local economy and interest. Furthermore there will be new
pavements, streetlights, plants and other things to improve the image of the streets. Traffic will be
directed otherwise in other to make it a pedestrian friendly area, as well as accessible for the
physically disabled, which will be a trendsetting development for the municipality.
More information the centre plan can be found on the website of “Centrum Plan Valkenburg”.
(John Wauben, Municipality Valkenburg, 2012/ Centrum Plan Valkenburg, Municipality Valkenburg,
2012)
Valkenburg also strives to position itself as the city of Wellness. Wellness should be seen in a broad
context, with various sub directions. Valkenburg takes the concept of Wellness and adds several other
concepts under that Wellness umbrella. It wishes to promote itself as a sports destination, the
Christmas city, the arts and culture city, the culinary city, the shopping city and a place with many
attractions.
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“Global Wellness” is the future theme where Valkenburg will focus on. Below one can find the logo
that comes with it.
(www.valkenburg.nl)
The logo displays a W of Wellness, and in that W is the letter V, which stands for Valkenburg. The logo
is designed according the following associations;
-
Chic
-
Organic forms
-
Internationally recognizable
-
Trans-boundary
-
Streaming
-
Water
-
Balance
-
Harmony
-
Flower form
-
A source that flourishes
The current and future developments will be made according to the plans made for the future.
Wellness stands for enjoying and relaxing oneself. Valkenburg therefore strives to create an overall
experience by upgrading buildings and bars, hotels and restaurants. Furthermore the city centre will
be renovated and routing will be improved. The city strives to attract shops and specialty stores with a
higher quality offer in order to complement the experience. Other developments are the new
shopping mall and the Wellness Boulevard that will be established. By means of upgrading the city the
municipality also strives to increase the tourist expenditures in the future.
The municipality Valkenburg knows its financial limitations and the need for regional cooperation in
order to achieve success, and therefore has several co operations with other parties. An example is
the cooperation with Maastricht, to link the cities of Maastricht and Valkenburg in order to stimulate
investments and the tourism industry. Maastricht of course has a good reputation, also abroad, while
Valkenburg is mostly famous within the Netherlands. The two cities complement each other and each
has their own unique assets. The big city of Maastricht is also famous for its business tourism, while
Valkenburg is known for the nature, activities and the peaceful environment. They wish to link the two
cities by means of cycle or hike routings, as well as new projects such as the Leeuw brewery, the
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
stimulation and promotion of regional products and better use of the river the Geul, which is the
“natural guide” between the cities. The idea is to develop a City Park in the area between the two
cities, which will cater for the wellness theme, the business tourism and slow food. It will be the link
between Maastricht and Valkenburg.
The cooperation is called GOMV (Gebiedsontwikkeling Maastricht-Valkenburg), which stands for Area
development Maastricht-Valkenburg. They wish to create one green, salutary area in order to develop
the tourism industry. It is a cooperation between the municipalities as well as the province Limburg.
More information on GOMV can be found on their website. (John Wauben, Municipality Valkenburg,
2012/ GOMV, Maastricht/ Valkenburg; twee steden, een gebied, 2008)
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
4. The Primary Research
This chapter is based on the primary research conducted by the author of this report. It is a mixture of
different research methods in order to understand the tourism industry, the image and the identity of
the city of Valkenburg. Several interviews were conducted among stakeholders and governmental
organizations, as well as questionnaires among residents and tourists (complemented by qualitative
research).
It is important to note that this report is written from a tourism perspective. The outcomes and
conclusions of the research are meant to improve the tourism industry and maintain a respectable
balance between tourists and residents. The chapter makes use of several theories as discussed in the
literature review, the red line being the Gap-analysis of Jaap van der Grinten.
The outcomes of the research are not representative for a whole population (residents or tourists).
However the research will provide a good insight in how tourists and residents see Valkenburg. This
research could be a starting point from where further and deeper research could be conducted on
specific matters. The width of the research allows for a relatively good overview on the identity and
image of Valkenburg, comprehending three different perspectives, namely from the municipality and
stakeholders, the residents and the tourists.
4.1 The Identity
This first subchapter will cover the identity of Valkenburg. The Gap-analysis of Jaap van der Grinten
divides the identity in three different areas. Firstly the desired identity (or image) followed by the
actual identity as it is, lastly the physical identity displayed by the city.
4.1.1 The desired identity (or desired image)
The author had several interviews with stakeholders of Valkenburg, in order to research the identity.
The municipality wishes to shift the image of the city and create a higher quality destination overall.
Due to the “old” image of Valkenburg being a party destination, it is difficult and time consuming to
change this entirely. The municipality is already working on this by executing new projects like the city
centre plan, the cooperation with Maastricht and other nearby municipalities, as well as trying to
create a sense of unity among the entrepreneurs in Valkenburg by setting up associations for events
and such.
Valkenburg and its area stand for space, rest and landscapes. Furthermore the city centre is a great
pull factor with its bars and restaurants and the cosy atmosphere. Another unique selling point of
Valkenburg is its caves, used for tours, activities and Christmas markets for instance. Furthermore it is
the cycling capital of the Netherlands, with great events such as the World Cup in 2012, and the
Amstel Gold Race. (Ilja-Castermans Godfried, Province Limburg, 2012)
The tourism industry is a long established one in Valkenburg. It has the oldest official tourism
association in the country and has welcomed tourists ever since. Due to its unique location (Euregional) and assets, it is a piece of “abroad” in the Netherlands. Next to the caves, landscapes and
activities the city is also known for its Burgundian character. The great events as mentioned before
mean a great deal to the city and attract many tourists and visitors every year. This is also one of
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Valkenburg’s pull factors.
The future of Valkenburg is pointed towards “Wellness”, in the broad sense of the word. It stands for
enjoying life and relaxing yourself. The current developments that complement this new future theme
are for example the new shopping mall, the renovation of the historical centre, the Leeuw beer terrain
and the Culture street. Besides a city of Wellness, Valkenburg is also promoted as Christmas city, and
Cycling city. (Nicole Schurgers, VVV-Zuid Limburg, 2012)
Valkenburg stands for diversity. It is nature, culture, lots of attractions and facilities, a beautiful
landscape and surrounding, the river the Geul, small roads and a cosy atmosphere. It has good
connections to surrounding areas in Belgium and Germany, as well as Maastricht. In the surroundings
one will also find many castles, which is quite unique for Dutch standards, as well as the historical
centre of Valkenburg. The municipality knows it is important not to let those buildings and shops
pauperize, in order to maintain the authentic feeling in the city centre. Furthermore the municipality
strives to attract smaller shops with a higher quality offer. The shops and specialty stores will
contribute to the whole experience while visiting the city. The new city centre plan will also tackle
some infrastructural problems, since routing will be improved which creates a more logical route for
tourists to enjoy while visiting, as well as more logical routes for traffic to pass by. Valkenburg is a selfconscious, proud city. It is a city to be enjoyed, with its diversity in nature and culture. It is the city of
events and activities, a city that lives and continuously strives to improve itself. This results in several
one liners namely; Valkenburg, feel delicious, feel romantic, feel active, feel ‘as new’, feel useful, feel
relaxed, feel like ‘a king’, feel young again, feel ‘out there’, just feel good. (Gastcollege Citymarketing,
Municipality Valkenburg, 2012). The new Wellness theme, enjoy and relax, has four major areas;
culinary, sports, culture and Christmas. These are the pinpoints for the future. (John Wauben,
Municipality Valkenburg, 2012)
In short, Valkenburg strives to be a higher quality destination in the future, with the Wellness theme
being their red line. Wellness stands for enjoying and relaxing, it is divided in four areas which will
shape the city’s image; Valkenburg, the culinary city, the city of sports, the city of culture and the city
of Christmas. Unique selling points for Valkenburg are its nature and landscapes, as well as the caves.
Furthermore it has a cosy city centre with a Burgundian character and many events, activities and
attractions. Its long affiliation with the tourism industry is displayed by its people and establishments,
which results in a united and pride municipality. The city wishes to gain international recognition by
implementing the Wellness theme and making extra marketing efforts abroad, for example in
Germany. The new city centre should also reflect a romantic atmosphere, with its cosiness, small
shops and boutiques as well as narrow streets. The city wishes to show its visitors to enjoy life, to relax
and take care of one’s’ health. Furthermore the city wishes to incorporate the other villages in the
municipality in the destination. Valkenburg aan de Geul is mainly known for the centre of Valkenburg,
while the other villages have lots to offer as well. Lastly the city wishes to establish partnerships with
other municipalities, for example the project along the river the Geul, partnered with Maastricht.
(John Wauben, Municipality Valkenburg, 2012)
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Values that the city strives for:
-
Optimism
-
Professionalism
-
Romance
-
Health
-
Joy
-
Unity
Valkenburg is a proud and professional tourism destination and offers a true holiday experience.
4.1.2 The actual identity
The actual identity is the identity as it is now. Due to the transformation that Valkenburg is going
through, there is still a big difference between the actual and desired identity of the city. The past
image of Valkenburg being a party destination during the summer season is still present and the city
also still displays its former glory. There are many buildings, bars, restaurants and hotels that have not
reinvested in their company in order to freshen up their own image, and develop further according to
the modern day desires and needs. The city has the identity of an old tourism destination. The
municipality actively tries to resolve these issues by developing projects and associations, as well as
setting out a guideline for the future. So far, communication and cooperation have not been quite
perfect yet, which resulted in a fractured city where some entrepreneurs do not believe in the same
ideals as the government. This results in a lack of willingness to cooperate and invest in the city. The
key to this problem is a good communication policy which is clear and defined in what it wants to
achieve, why and what the gain is.
Interviews have been held with the Holland Casino and Landal Green Parks, two of the bigger
organizations and employers of the city. They have both given their own perspective on the city as it
is.
Valkenburg is a true tourism destination. It is a small destination with a history, a cosy city centre and
lots of facilities and bars, restaurants and hotels. It is remarkable how Valkenburg continuous to
position itself as a tourism destination, also for foreign tourists. Everybody knows Valkenburg. It is a
famous city with a Burgundian character. Furthermore it is a true cycling city, as well as a Christmas
city. The events that take place do a great deal of promotion for the city and are vital for its tourism
industry. The cultural and sportive events suit the identity of Valkenburg.
It is important to reinvest in the city and upgrade companies and buildings in order to compete with
other cities. The new Wellness theme is interesting and attracts a profitable market, but it is essential
that the theme and plans are pursued. New developments and projects have to take place in order to
make this future plan a success. At the moment there are still some entrepreneurs that do not see the
need for reinvestments, and still believe that the tourists will keep coming (like they have always done
so far). (Bart Kurris, Holland Casino, 2012)
Valkenburg is known for its history, the marl caves, its cosy city centre and of course the nature and
landscape surrounding the city. It is a competitor of Maastricht, but very different. Maastricht is the
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
big city. Valkenburg has the landscape and the peaceful environment. The city has a lot to offer and is
very diverse. It is a pure destination, with a natural development in tourism over the years. It used to
be the party destination; nowadays it is getting a bit more quality with upgrades from a camping site
to Landal Green Parks for example. The events are good for the city, although it brings with problems
for the residents when it comes to traffic and parking. It is a sensitive subject but nevertheless
important. It is better not to grow any further in terms of number, but rather increase the tourist
expenditures in the future. The Wellness plan complements this, and brings with developments that
will do good for the city; shops and boutiques, restaurants, medical wellness.
A big problem here is that there are companies that are quite solitary in terms of cooperation and
developments. Some entrepreneurs do not seem to see the urge to cooperate and invest in the city.
The Christmas period is a good example, the municipality needs financial means to invest in the city
during this period of the year, however there are not many companies willingly investing in this (John
Wauben, Municipality Valkenburg, 2012).
The new city centre plan will be good for both resident and tourist, and will provide a better quality
offer and routing. It will improve the city centre. (Tanya Reinards, Landal Green Parks, 2012)
4.1.3 The physical identity
The physical identity comprehends all the tangible aspects of the identity. This chapter reviews the
websites, brochures, tourism association shop/ information point, the symbolism of the logos, the city
itself and the behaviour of its management.
Websites, brochure, “VVV Shop” and social media
The official website of Valkenburg, www.valkenburg.nl, has a tourism section which provides
information on the city. One can choose the topics history and nature, which display the history of
Valkenburg and its tourism industry, and its natural assets. Under the tab “Discover Valkenburg”, one
will find several topics on what Valkenburg is. The topics are;
-
Cycling & Hiking
-
Christmas
-
Arts & Culture
-
Wellness
-
Shopping
-
Attractions
It is not consistent with the Wellness theme and its subareas, which is remarkable. Furthermore the
website does not seem to be very modern in terms of technology. Furthermore the website displays
mainly just plain text, with the occasional picture or video inserted.
The official website of Global Wellness Valkenburg, www.globalwellnessvalkenburg.nl, does not seem
to be in use any longer since the lost news post was from February 2008. This is remarkable since it is
the new future plan. The website is a bit more sophisticated than the one mentioned before, but still
lacks in creating an ‘experience’. There is use of colours, pictures and text. It provides information and
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
news related to the wellness plan. It is operated by the municipality of Valkenburg, but once again the
Wellness theme and its subareas are not represented on this page.
The official website of the Valkenburg Christmas period, www.kerststadvalkenburg.nl, provides
information on the Christmas markets at the end of each year. It provides the information in English,
French, German and Dutch, which displays their desire for international recognition. Furthermore
Christmas images are used in order to create the experience.
The official website of the city centre plan, www.centrumplanvalkenburg.nl, provides information and
updates on the city centre plan. People interested can read through documents, plans, ideas and such
for the centre plan. One could also see when there are information evenings or meetings.
Furthermore there are newsflashes on what is currently going on. Ideal for the residents, but also
tourists, who would like to know what kind of developments are taking place and why.
The official website of the tourism association South Limburg, www.vvvzuidlimburg.nl, has a section
for Valkenburg in particular. It displays moving pictures and texts of the assets of Valkenburg and so
creates a sort of experience of the city. Furthermore it provides texts and information on the city, its
attractions and assets. One can download the tourist brochure of Valkenburg here.
The brochure starts with a text on the diversity of the city, titled “A marl city with many faces”. This is
followed by information and pictures on attractions, activities and things to do, as well as a tourist
map of the city. It has different sections for the attractions, the nature & relaxation and the marl
caves.
The tourism association also has a Smartphone App, which allows tourists to browse through the
different possibilities they have at the spot, as well as providing information on the city and its
attractions. There is a section on Valkenburg in particular, but this merely provides information on the
history and nature. The other sections such as attractions and activities are all mingled together with
other areas in the south of Limburg.
In the city itself one will find a “VVV Shop”, which is a shop from the tourism association. It provides
information and tours for the tourists, as well as local products to buy. It displays the history and local
assets of the region.
The tourism association and its promotion do not (yet) seem to be displaying the new Wellness theme
with its sub areas, although some of them are represented.
The social media accounts on Facebook and Twitter are both from the municipality. The Facebook
account does not seem to be in use, and mainly displays posts from other users that tagged the
account. The posts that are from the municipality are just copied links from their twitter account.
The twitter account has significantly more “followers”, however it is still relatively low compared to
the amount of residents it has (at this point 1.193 followers/ almost 17.000 residents). The twitter
account displays information on current developments in the city, as well as interesting topics such as
nominations, event licensing, workshops and such. Furthermore there is information on the
proceedings of the city centre plan.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The tourism association of south Limburg also hosts a Facebook and Twitter account. They are actively
publishing photos and newsfeeds on what activities and events are going on. They also publish special
discounts or offers for tourists to enjoy. The amount of followers on Twitter, and people that like the
Facebook page, are, relatively low. Due to the use of pictures and interactional posts it provides a view
on the city as well as a certain vibe, which lets tourists already experience a bit of Valkenburg (and the
other areas).
The most important remark for the physical identity is that it is represented in various ways. However
there does not seem to be much consistency among the various channels.
The Logos
There are two logos to be reviewed for the identity.
Logo Municipality Valkenburg
Logo Global Wellness Valkenburg
(Municipality Valkenburg, 2012)
The logo on the left hand side is the logo from the municipality. It displays its history (with the bird and
tower), as well as the nature (the green bushes). Furthermore the text at the bottom imitates a
flowing river. It represents the identity of Valkenburg at its core. The history and natural assets are
important factors that created the city one sees today. It has a professional, modern look.
The Global Wellness logo on the right hand side displays blue colours, which is soothing. It has a
modern look and the letters W and V, representing Wellness and Valkenburg respectively. It also has
an interesting look and suits the theme, although it does relate more to relaxation, water and wellness
in the traditional sense of the word. The sub areas of sports, culture, culinary and Christmas are not
represented. It does have a professional look.
The City
The unique location of the city has a beautiful natural surrounding which contributes to the
experience. Furthermore the centre breathes the history of the city, namely the old buildings, the use
of marl, castles and ruins as well as the caves. The narrow streets, relatively small city centre and
numerous bars, restaurants and hotels all contribute to the authentic, romantic and cosy atmosphere.
During events such as the Christmas period and major cycling events, the city transforms according to
that theme. It creates an atmosphere which is loved by both resident and tourist.
However, as discussed before, the city still lacks in displaying professionalism and a fresh look. Lots of
buildings and companies are outdated due to a lack of investments and developments. The new city
centre plan will be a great benefit for the look of the city, however at the moment it does the exact
opposite. Due to the work on the roads, sewer systems etc. the look of the city is one that hopefully
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
will not continue to be for much longer. It is a necessary evil, however it will still take two to three
years before the whole plan will be finished (John Wauben, Municipality Valkenburg, 2012).
Furthermore there are attractions which are outdated and do not seem to fit the desired identity of
the city any longer. The upgrading of present buildings and attracting new companies are vital for this
matter, since a higher quality offer and look is pursued by the municipality.
The Hosts’ behaviour
The municipality of Valkenburg has the management over the city, and needs to make difficult
decisions in order to take care of both tourist and resident. It is difficult due to the small size of the
municipality, and the large size of its tourism industry. The key here is communication. Based on the
research of the author it became clear that many residents are not happy with the way the
municipality communicates with them. They find that the municipality is not listening well to the
opinion of its residents. Furthermore they find that the other villages in the municipality are neglected
in comparison to Valkenburg itself. Other remarks were that the correspondence between resident
and municipality in terms of complaints and questions, was not rapid enough and that new ideas and
projects were published publicly, while most of the times no real actions followed, which made the
resident wonder why it was published (based on qualitative and quantitative research of the author,
numbers and figures can be found in the subchapter “The Image”). Based on this research, there is a
lack in professionalism. Also the sense of unity is not encouraged in this way.
On the other hand the municipality actively tries to unite the entrepreneurs to reinvest and innovate
in order to develop the city further. It provides subsidies, advice and sets up organizations for specific
events and the Christmas period. In this way it strives to unite the different parties, and create a sense
of belonging. They also strive to incorporate the other villages of the municipality in their marketing, in
order to make use of their own unique selling points.
Lastly there are the residents of the city, which are the ambassadors when it comes to interaction with
the tourists. The author’s own experience has been great, the residents are very open and friendly,
and make the tourist feel welcome.
4.2 The Image
The primary research has been conducted by means of questionnaires, one for the residents and one
for the tourists of Valkenburg, in order to research their perception of the city (appendix 7.2). Below
one will find the important results for this research, all the other data can be found in appendix 7.9.
4.2.1 The tourists
Qualitative research
Tourists were asked to write down in a few words what they relate to the name Valkenburg. Below
one will find a list of the words mentioned.
-
Limburg “vlaaien” (local specialty
cakes)
Cycling (Amstel Gold Race, World
Cup cycling)
-
Caves
-
Thermae 2000
-
The Cauberg
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
-
Nature (surroundings, river the
Geul, hills)
-
Relaxation (rest, peaceful area)
-
Valkeniers Fun Park
-
“Gezelligheid” (cosiness)
-
Leeuw beer
-
City centre (going out,
restaurants, bars, terraces)
-
Holland Casino
-
Cable way
-
Holiday (weekend getaway)
-
Christmas markets
-
Close to 3 country point
-
Tourism
In the words that were mentioned by the tourists, one can see connections to the strengths of
Valkenburg. It also complements their desired identity. The mentioning of feelings like relaxation,
cosiness and a holiday feeling, are promising for the identity desired. Furthermore the tourists link
Valkenburg to the Christmas markets, caves, cycling, city centre and nature, which are all
represented in their identity. Specific attention goes to the Thermae 2000, Holland Casino, Leeuw
beer, the Cauberg and Limburg “vlaaien”. However on the other hand one can see that there are
also attractions mentioned, like for Valkeniers Fun Park and the Cable way, which remind people of
the old days, when the attractions were real pull factors for the city.
Tourists were also asked to write down in words any other remarks that they would like to mention.
Below one will find a short summary of the most important ones, and most frequently mentioned.
-
People that do not stay overnight are rejected in bars and restaurants (during lunch/
dinner time)
-
A true family destination
-
The proximity of everything in the city centre is ideal
-
Valkenburg has not changed much over the years, it has a lot to offer but needs to
modernize and upgrade
-
You often hear “It is not what it used to be”
-
There is not much to do in Valkenburg (shopping wise)
-
A lot of things to do, but relatively cheap leisure activities and shops
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Quantitative research
Tourists were asked to rate several statements on a Likert-scale (1 to 5, 1 being “completely
disagree”, 5 being “completely agree”). Lastly the tourists were asked the grade Valkenburg as a
tourism destination. Figures are based on the data from the research, which one can find in
appendix 7.9.1.
In total there were 123
respondents for the tourist
questionnaire. 47.2% were male,
52.8% female.
N=123. In the birth year
distribution figure, one can see
that there was a large amount of
respondents that were not older
than 25 years old. This will have an
effect on the outcome and
therefore should be taken into
consideration when looking at the
results.
The level of education, showed a strong
presence of high levelled respondents.
The mean is 4.9, N=123.
Most respondents visisted the city with
friends. The other values are quite evenly
distributed, with family and boyfriend/
girlfriend scoring a bit higher than man/
wife. The mean is 3.2, N=123.
Most respondents have visited the city
several times, or even more than 5 times.
Only a mere 8.1% visited the city for the
first time. This proves the fame of
Valkenburg among the Dutch people. The
mean is 2.4, N=123.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Most respondents do/ did not stay overnight. If
they did stay overnight, most respondents
stayed overnight for 2 nights. Valkenburg is a
popular city in the Netherlands, especially for
daytrips. This is why there is such a large
amount of respondents that did not stay
overnight. The mean is 2.1, N=123.
The 3 most important features
The outcomes show a result of 5 different features that were chosen the most. Respondents could
tick three ouf of ten options, what they thought were the three most important features of
Valkenburg.
1. Caves (68% of the respondents chose this feature) – N=122
2. Events (47.1% of the respondents chose this feature) – N=123
3. City Centre (43.1% of the respondents chose this feature) – N=123
4. Nature (39.8% of the respondents chose this feature) – N=123
5. Activities (38.2% of the respondents chose this feature) – N=123
The statements
Most respondents agree with the
statement. There are only few
respondents that disagree, and none at all
that completely disagree. This shows that
on average the tourists like the residents
of Valkenburg, and that they feel
welcome while visiting Valkenburg. The
mean is 4.2, N=123.
Most tourists agreed with this statement.
Due to the low percentages of
respondents disagreeing, being neutral or
did not know, one could say that
Valkenburg definitely has a lot of fun
activities to offer. The mean is 4.2, N=122.
Most respondents agree that Valkenburg
is a romantic city. The distribution is
divided among the several values, but
over 60% agrees/ completely agrees with
the statement. The mean is 3.8, N=123.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
More than half of the respondents agrees
that Valkenburg is a fresh and lively city.
The value “neutral” also ranks high, having
25% of the respondents. The mean is 3.8,
N=123.
According to the results it is safe to say
that the respondents like the city centre
of Valkenburg. It is a cosy and fun place to
be, with almost all of the respondents
agreeing/ completely agreeing with this
statement. The mean is 4.3, N=122.
The answers are distributed over all
different values. Most respondents think
that there are enough parking
possibilities. On the other hand there are
also around 40% of the respondents that
disagree or are neutral on this statement.
The mean is 3.9, N=122.
More than 80% of the respondents agrees
or completely agrees with the fact that
Valkenburg is a good spot to discover its
surrounding areas. The mean is 4.2,
N=123.
Most respondents were neutral on this
statement. The value “agree” ranked
secondly, right after that. The distribution
over the values shows that on average
there is a good price/quality ratio,
however it could be better. The mean is
3.9, N=123.
Almost half of the respondents agrees
that the directions are good. On average
one could say that the directions could be
better, but there are few people that are
bothered by it. The mean is 4.1, N=123.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
No respondents disagreed with this
statement and one could thus say that
information is easy and readily available,
if tourists want to know more on the
activities and offers of the city. The mean
is 4.4, N=123.
Almost 78% of the respondents agreed or
completely agreed with this statement.
One could say that Valkenburg is
regarded a safe city. The mean is 4.3,
N=123.
There are few respondents that disagree
with the statement. Over 60% agrees or
completely agrees that Valkenburg is a
green and clean city. There are also 28.5%
of the respondents that were neutral. The
mean is 4, N=121.
I come to Valkenburg for/ to...
Very few respondents agreed with this
statement. Most respondents (36.6%)
disagreed, 27.6% completely disagreed.
One could say that the respondents, on
average, do not come for the wellness &
healthcare. The mean is 2.5, N=123.
Almost all of the respondents disagreed
with the statement. One could say that
the respondents do not come for the
Holland Casino. The mean is 2, N=123.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Most of the respondents agreed with the
statement. They visit Valkenburg for its
events. The others were quite evenly
distributed over the other values. The
mean is 3.3, N=123.
Most respondents come to enjoy and
relax theirselves. Less than 20% disagreed
with the statement. One could say that
the respondents visit the city to find joy
and relaxation. The mean is 3.6, N=122.
Most of the respondents agreed with the
statement. However the differences are
relatively small, which makes it difficult to
say anything about the outcome. The
mean is 3.3, N=123.
Most respondents disagreed with the
statement. On average one could say the
respondents do not visit the city for
shopping. The mean is 2.6, N=122.
Most respondents disagreed with the
statement. However the differences with
the values “neutral” and “agree” are
relatively small. One could say that
history is a pull factor but not a priority.
The mean is 2.8, N=123.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Valkenburg’ tourism industry
Most respondents agree that the tourism
industry in Valkenburg is professionally
managed. There are very few that disagree
with this statement. The mean is 4.2,
N=122.
Most respondents agree that Valkenburg
is in need for renewal. There are very few
that disagreed, while there were 30.1%
respondents being neutral. The mean is
3.8, N=123.
The grade
Most respondents graded Valkenburg with
an 8. The mean is 7.4, which is a relatively
high grade. One could say that tourists are
well satisfied when visiting Valkenburg.
N=123.
4.2.2 The residents
Qualitative research
Residents were asked to write down any remarks they had on the city and its management. Answers
have been listed and grouped together, in order to create a better overview of the remarks
mentioned. The results can be found below.
-
Municipality does what it wants, not listening well to the resident (eg. City centre plan,
Streek museum, Polfermolen, new hotel plan in centre, new bridge in the centre,
subsidies for arts & culture are withdrawn, no clear long term vision, not enough
attention for other villages than Valkenburg)
-
Municipality promises, but does not take action – many plans get published but never
make it (also many contradicting decisions have been made)
-
Municipality should communicate better with the residents – asking opinions or
providing information?
-
Parking problems (in city centre, during events and when having visitors over)
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
-
Traffic safety not always up to standard (especially for children, crossovers at schools,
more control on cyclists breaking the law/ in city centre, extra light at road Rasberg,
extra control/ consideration for Bergstraat in Sibbe)
-
A North-South connection for traffic is desired, to maintain the rest/ peace in the
residential area
-
Public transport in the evenings could be improved (connection to Maastricht/ Heerlen)
-
More attention for the elderly (not only in the city centre)
-
More public toilets
-
More ATMs in the city centre
-
Security cameras desired in areas where problems occur frequently (eg. City centre)
-
Sport facilities not only important for the tourists, also the residents
-
Extra attention to renovating buildings/ time for renovation, minimizing crime
-
More attention to non EU markets
-
Nature is important for Valkenburg; take care of it (benches, parks, hiking tracks etc.)
-
Tourism should not be too broad (Wellness, cycling etc./ less concentration on cycling
tourism/ not only high-end tourism, the average “Joe” is also important for the industry
and has always been/
-
More consideration for the resident during events (also cycling events should be better
spread over the year, often events/ tours at the same time)
-
New developments at the river the Geul are appreciated
-
Many entrepreneurs that are too stubborn, not willing to cooperate/ invest, they do not
grant each other anything
-
Valkenburg has a great atmosphere, is a great place to live
Quantitative research
Residents were asked about their expectations and experiences with their place of residence, by
means of closed questions. Furthermore they were asked to rate statements according to the Likertscale (1 to 5, 1 being “completely disagree” or “not good at all”, 5 being “completely agree” or “very
good”). The outcomes can be found
below.
In total there were 215 respondents for
the resident questionnaire. 51.6% were
male, 48.4% female.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The birth years of the respondents were
quite well distributed. The birth years
were clustered in order to provide a
better overview. Most respondents were
born before 1952, with the classes 19531962 and 1963-1972 after that. The
majority of the respondents was older
than 50 years at the time of the research.
N=215.
Most respondents had a relatively high
education (HBO). MBO followed right
after that. On average the level of
education ranked relatively high. The
mean is 4.9, N=213.
Expectation versus Experience of the aspect
Residents were asked to rank their expectations of certain aspects on a Likert-scale (1 to 5). The
same was asked for their experience with the aspect. The figure below shows the mean of the
specific aspect. The difference between the two show where there are gaps to improve, and also
shows which aspects are appreciated.
Y-axis = Mean of the aspect
X-axis = Number of aspect (see below)
1 – Safety
7 - Atmosphere among residents
2 - Parking
8 - Accessibility
3 - Nature
9 - Public transport
4 - Sport facilities
10 - Balance between events/ rest in the city
5 - Arts & Culture
11 - Balance between tourism/ residential area
6 - Atmosphere in the city
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The exact mean and exact number of respondents per aspect (expectation/ experience) can be
found in the appendix 7.9.2.
The following aspects do not have a big gap between expectation and experience and can therefore
be regarded as “Good”. There is not much room for improvement, or is not found necessary at the
moment. The aspects are; Nature, Sport facilities, Arts & Culture, Public transport. Furthermore
Sport facilities, Arts & Culture and Public Transport are not regarded as important as the other
aspects, which mean they have a relatively low priority for the respondents. Nature has the second
highest level of expectation, which means that this aspect should be seen as a priority.
The following aspects have a relatively big gap between expectation and experience and can
therefore be regarded as “Attention needed”. There is room for improvement and these aspects
should definitely be taken seriously when making future decisions. The aspects are; Atmosphere in
the city, Atmosphere among residents, Balance between tourism/ residential area. Although most
respondents came from Valkenburg itself, it appears that the tourism industry does not affect their
residential area. The gap is there, but there is no extreme difference between expectation and
experience. Also the level of expectation is relatively low compared to other aspects.
It is interesting to see that the gap is relatively big for the aspects of Atmosphere. The atmosphere in
the city should be having attention from the municipality; however it most likely comes forth out of
the City centre plan that was currently taking place while the questionnaires were conducted. This
would most likely have had an effect on the outcome for this aspect. Furthermore the atmosphere
among residents is slightly smaller, but should be taken seriously.
The following aspects all have a large gap between expectation and experience and can therefore be
regarded as “Must take action”. There is definitely something going on and it is vital for the
municipality to improve it. The aspects are; Safety, Parking, Accessibility, Balance between events/
rest in the city. The safety gap could be related to the traffic safety mentioned in the qualitative
research. Furthermore the cyclists seem to create unsafe situations while riding through the city.
The parking gap is known at the municipality, and it is one that is extremely difficult to deal with. It is
vital for the municipality to come up with a solution that suits both tourist and resident, and that
makes sense for Valkenburg as a place of residence, but also for the place of huge events. The aspect
of the balance between events and rest in the city is also a known issue. Due to the relatively small
size of Valkenburg it is difficult to cater for so many tourists and visitors that come to the major
events. It is important to find a balanced solution for tourists and most of all the residents.
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The statements
The majority of the respondents were
neutral about this statement. 28.8%
disagreed, 15.8% agreed and 13.9%
completely disagreed. One could say that
the respondents think the municipality
does not listen well to the opinion of the
residents. The mean is 2.8, N=215.
37.5% agrees that there is a good balance
between tourism and the residential area.
One could say that there is a good
balance according to the respondents.
The mean is 3.7, N=213.
The majority of the respondents disagrees
with the statement. One could say that
according to the respondents, there are
not too many events in Valkenburg. The
mean is 2.7, N=215.
The vast majority of the respondents
agrees that the city centre is cosy and fun.
There were relatively low percentages
disagreeing with the statement. One
could say that the city centre is cosy and
fun according to the respondents. The
mean is 3.8, N=215.
Almost all respondents agree or
completely agree with the statement.
One could say that the respondents are
proud of Valkenburg. The mean is 4,
N=215.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Almost all respondents agreed or
completely agreed with the statement.
One could say the respondents are happy
to live in Valkenburg. The mean is 4.3,
N=214.
Almost all respondents agree or
completely agree with the fact that the
tourism industry is important for
Valkenburg as a city. The mean is 4.5,
N=215.
The majority of the respondents agrees
with Valkenburg being a good destination
for business tourism. The differences
between the values are not substantial,
however one could say that the
repsondents on average, think that
Valkenburg is a good destination for
business tourism. The mean is 3.5, N=215.
The majority of the respondents agrees
with Wellness tourism being the future
for Valkenburg. The values “neutral” and
“completely agree” come right after that.
One could say that the respondents think
that Wellness tourism is the future for
Valkenburg. The mean is 3.6, N=215.
The grade
The vast majority of the respondents
grades the city with an 8 out of 10. The
grade 7 comes after that. One could say
that the respondents find Valkenburg a
pleasant city to live. The mean is 7.5,
N=210.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
4.3 The gaps
Overall the image of both residents and tourists seem to be relatively good. They grade the city
above average and are happy to visit/ live in the city. However the research also reveals gaps
between the identity pursued, displayed and the image as perceived by tourists and residents. The
outcomes can be found below.
4.3.1 Desired identity – Actual identity
The actual identity of Valkenburg as it is, displays common ground with the desired identity. The
strengths of the city are of course taken into account when planning for the future, so this is only
logical. Currently the city still has a problem with the infrastructure and buildings which are not up to
date. Due to this the city does not yet display that quality destination that it wishes to be. However
the Burgundian city is defined as a true tourism destination, with history, a cosy city centre and a lot
of diversity in activities, attractions and facilities. The events play an important role in the promotion
and the forming of the identity of Valkenburg. Its culture and sports are key factors of the tourism
industry. It is the cycling capital of the Netherlands, the Christmas city of the Netherlands, and offers
beautiful landscapes and nature. The Thermae2000 is another pull factor and the new wellness
theme will only enforce this.
There is a great potential for foreign markets to attract to Valkenburg and this is still missing. The
destination lacks in international fame. Current campaigns are held in Germany in cooperation with
the tourism association of South Limburg, but there is still room for improvement in order to
generate more international recognition. The city does not yet display a sense of unity among its
stakeholders. The municipality is actively trying to resolve this; however that is not yet achieved.
4.3.2 Desired identity – Physical identity
The key to succeed in achieving the desired identity is good communication, to the tourists but also
to the residents. This has to be displayed by the physical identity. As described in the subchapter of
physical identity earlier, the online media used by the municipality and tourism association do
display common features, values and keywords. However it is not exactly the same. Especially
related to the Wellness theme there are many different keywords and topics mentioned, which
makes it confusing. It is important to align the various channels according to the desired identity, the
values strived for and the features of the aspect that form the city’s desired image. Websites such as
the one from Global Wellness Valkenburg are not up to date, and therefore create even more
confusion as well as discredit the municipality’s professionalism.
Furthermore the city of Valkenburg as it is now does not yet meet the criteria mentioned in the
desired identity. The municipality is aware of this and by means of the city centre plan it is reshaping
the city centre, as well as the infrastructure, which will hopefully eliminate the gap. Furthermore
there is a need for renovation and innovation in terms of entrepreneurs who need to reinvest in
their businesses. A sense of unity among the various parties could definitely contribute to this
aspect. It is important to align the various ideas and visions, in order to achieve the higher goal.
Lastly the hosts of the city, the municipality and its residents, could improve their communication so
that all parties involved share the same vision for the future, and so that residents can relate to the
new developments that are taking place. It is important that the ambassadors, the residents, stand
behind the identity desired by the city.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
4.3.3 Desired identity – Image
The gaps between the identity desired and the image as perceived by tourists are as follows. Though
the city wishes to pursue its burgundian character and a romantic atmosphere, some tourists and
residents feel rejected in the food & beverage sector if they do not want to have dinner/ lunch, but
merely a drink. Furthermore they acknowledge that there are parking issues, especially during
events. The municipality is aware of this and again the city centre plan will tackle this issue. The
tourists also mention that there are many things to do in Valkenburg, though relatively cheap in
terms of offering. Remarkable is that the price/quality ratio is not considered very good, this has to
be taken into account for the future. If the new wellness industry will flourish, it is important to
maintain a good price/quality ratio so that also the average “Joe” can still enjoy the city’s offer.
Tourists were asked to rate on what level they are attracted to Valkenburg, based on several
elements. Remarkably wellness & healthcare scores relatively low, also due to the background of the
respondents. Furthermore it became clear that shopping is not a pull factor for the city, the new
shopping mall and potential new shops that will locate in Valkenburg will hopefully change this. This
could result in a new market that is attracted to Valkenburg. The respondents also did not see the
history of the city as a pull factor, often it is appreciated but it is not one of the reasons to visit
Valkenburg. Furthermore the tourists see Valkenburg as a professional tourism destination, but do
think it is in need for renewal. The current and future developments will tackle this issue.
Overall the tourist graded Valkenburg with a 7.4, which is a relatively high grade and one could
therefore conclude that the city is regarded a very good tourism destination to visit.
On the other hand the residents were asked how they perceive their place of residence. It quickly
became clear that there is a serious gap between municipality and resident. The communication is
not up to standards and many residents complain about the way that the municipality treats them. It
is important to set up a better and clearer communication between the two parties, in order to
maintain a satisfying relationship.
The tourists regarded Valkenburg as a safe city, on the contrary the outcomes from the residents
shows a clear gap. The traffic safety is not up to standards and should be dealt with. Residents do
not feel safe, special care should be taken for the elderly and children. Furthermore the cyclists
seem to cause many problems (especially in the city centre) and do not take others into
consideration.
Another aspect mentioned was that there is little to do for young people. Since the city centre is
focused on tourism and food & beverage, young people (under 16) find it relatively boring. Taking
into account that the city’s population is aging and that young potential is leaving the city, it is
important to organize and facilitate for the younger ones, so that they do want to stay.
Furthermore the outcomes showed that the sport facilities could be improved. Sports being one of
the subareas under the Wellness “umbrella” should be at a high level for both resident and tourist to
enjoy. Parking is also considered a problem among the residents. It is known that it causes problems
during events and peak seasons. However it should also be taken into account that visitors of
residents have a place to park. Another gap is there between the balance of events and rest in the
city. The municipality is aware of the problem and it is difficult to tackle. It is important that
residents understand the importance of events for Valkenburg, and they should be aware of the
benefits it brings. It is also important to show the opportunities for the resident in order to make
them feel comfortable if major events take place in the city. Lastly the residents acknowledge that
the city is in need for renewal and renovation in order to survive in the future.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
5. Recommendations
This chapter will cover the recommendations
made by the author, based on the secondary
and primary research conducted. The
outcomes were reviewed, analyzed and put
into context in order to come up with several
recommendations for the city of Valkenburg.
The recommendations are divided according
to Simon Anholt’s CI Hexagon (2002).
“First, that place branding is not about telling the world that our place is good; instead it is about making our
place good and letting the world know that we are trying. Secondly, that place branding does help improve a
place’s image but this improvement is always based on wide interventions that call the brand to mind rather on
promotion alone.” (Kavaratzis, 2008 - Towards Effective Place Brand Management, p38)
5.1 Tourism
-
The overall recommendation for the tourism promotion is that marketing efforts are
aligned and have the Wellness theme as a foundation.
-
The Wellness theme and its sub areas should be the red line in the promotion for
Valkenburg in the near future. The online media should be aligned with this theme, as
well as the values and keywords mentioned, and the vibe that is created in the
promotion. A website like Global Wellness Valkenburg should be kept up to date in
order to provide information and spread the word on the new wellness theme, if not, it
should be deleted from the web.
-
The social media sites should be clear, concise and more interactive with tourist and
resident. It is important to get feedback to work with, as well as create a sense of
belonging. Furthermore this could result in points of improvement, as well as points that
are appreciated.
-
The Wellness theme, as well as Valkenburg as a shopping destination should be well
promoted in the future. So far tourists do not see Valkenburg as such a destination and
therefore the developments need to be shown to the outer world.
-
The caves and city centre are mentioned as top features of Valkenburg by its tourists
(the city centre is also appreciated by residents), these should be used in the promotion
of Valkenburg. The caves are well used for activities, tours and Christmas markets.
-
The history is no real pull factor for tourists. However it is a strength of Valkenburg and
should be used as an extra selling point. The focus should be on the Wellness theme.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
-
The surroundings of Valkenburg and its villages should be used in the promotion in order
to stimulate the industry in those areas, as well as create a sense of unity in the
municipality. This will also stimulate the pride and understanding of the residents.
-
International fame should be desired. Marketing campaigns abroad will be of
importance for the future in order to attract new markets. The current campaign in
Germany is therefore a good start, other countries that might be interesting are
Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria (close proximity). Further research is needed
for this.
-
The RECRON campaign is an interesting, modern day look to determining which markets
are attracted to Valkenburg. A research for Valkenburg in particular could be of great
use for the future marketing. In this way better product-market combinations could be
formed, and communication channels could be better used.
5.2 Brands
-
Valkenburg is known for sports (mainly cycling and hiking), marl caves, Christmas
markets and events. These are great brands of the city that create national/
international attention. It is important to develop these brands and make good use of
them marketing wise.
-
Thermae 2000 and Holland Casino Valkenburg are strong brands that should be
maintained and stimulated to develop further.
5.3 Policy
-
Loosen up legislations and bureaucracy for entrepreneurs who want to invest/ innovate.
It is important that they can develop themselves. Also stimulate this and help them by
offering advice and information (is already happening, but perhaps a more active
approach would create more interest)
-
Attract young “talent”/ potential. It is important for the city to develop itself and with an
aging population it is difficult to innovate. Try attracting younger people by ensuring that
supporting facilities are there, as well as opportunities to invest and develop.
-
Attract quality investors, stores and establishments by offering special incentives (tax
incentives for example). Show the opportunities and future plans of the city as an extra
pull factor.
-
Ensure road safety. Especially in the city centre residents complained about the cyclists
that did not take anyone else into consideration. Cycling free areas might be an
opportunity. An option would be to invest in a bicycle parking in the city centre.
-
Active residency should be encouraged. This will increase the sense of unity as well as
the pride of the residents, and will display points of improvement for the city to work
on. Residents should be part of the city’s management.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
5.4 Investment
-
All investments and developments should take the Wellness theme into consideration.
How does it improve the city? How does it complement the product offer?
-
Nature is regarded as a top priority among residents and tourists. It is important to take
care of the assets such as parks, benches and hiking trails. Keep it up to standards.
-
More ATMs are desired in the city centre
-
Safety is regarded a high priority. An option would be to place security camera in the city
centre in order to prevent crime and offer a safe feeling to both resident and tourist.
-
Public toilets in the city centre and surroundings are desired.
-
It is important to stimulate an uniform cityscape/ look in terms of buildings and its
appearances (municipality is already working on this).
-
Not only the city centre but also its surroundings (other villages) should be made elderly
and child friendly. Crossovers in dangerous streets could be an option. Furthermore
benches could be placed for the elderly, in order to have the possibility to rest.
-
Parking is a huge problem (mainly during events) in the city centre. It is also regarded a
problem in the outer areas. Residents suggested a parking pass for their visitors in order
not to create problems for them to have someone over for a visit.
Another option for the major issue during events and peak season might be a parking
place outside of the residential area, which offers many parking lots. Busses could drive
between there and the centre when necessary.
Furthermore it is important to monitor to problem after the city centre plan is finished,
in order to see whether the developments have met the needs.
-
It is important to maintain a respectable price/ quality ratio in Valkenburg, after the
major developments have taken place. It is important that the average “Joe” can still
afford to visit the city, they have always been (and probably will be in the future) the
main market for Valkenburg.
-
A North-South connection is desired by the residents in order to eliminate the stress on
traffic in the villages. This will also decrease the feeling of being unsafe.
5.5 Culture
-
Local specialties are appreciated by tourists and residents; this could be used more in
the promotion, as well as spreading the culture of Valkenburg.
-
The events of Valkenburg such as World Cup Cycling and the Amstel Gold Race are great
examples of the cycling culture in the region. This should be cherished and stimulated.
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5.6 People
-
The municipality should communicate better to its residents. The research has shown
that the residents are proud and happy to live in Valkenburg; they believe in the
Wellness plans and do think that the tourism industry is important for the city, however
they find that the municipality is not listening well. More interaction should take place in
order to create a better relationship and thrust.
-
The communication should be clear and detailed. The municipality should mention when
they are asking for opinions, or merely providing information on new developments.
-
If new plans or ideas are published, it should be clear whether this will take place or that
it is just an idea/ concept. It creates confusion and contradicting visions.
-
A sense of belonging and unity should be encouraged. By means of better
communication and the stimulation of new ideas and innovations could contribute to
this. The “grant-factor” should be increased. Entrepreneurs do not seem to grant each
other that much.
Furthermore residents and tourists complained that establishments rejected them
during lunch/ dinner time, while they merely wanted to have a drink. Entrepreneurs
should be aware of the fact that these are their customers and that they have to offer a
warm and hospitable welcome.
-
There should be more activities and things to do for young people. Parents and their
children have complained about the small offering for young people, this could be one
of the reasons that many of them leave the city.
-
The problem with the balance between events and rest in the city known, however it
should be taken seriously. Although it is just a few days in the year, residents do seem to
care a great deal about it. Residents should be informed well in advance, as well as given
possibilities to minimize the difficulties for them during the event.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
6. Bibliography
Ambitiedocument Vrijetijdseconomie, Provincie Limburg (2011)
Basisboek Statistiek met SPSS, Baarda, De Goede en Van Dijkum (2007) – Noordhoff Uitgevers
Beleef Valkenburg, VVV Zuid-Limburg (2012) – (Front page picture has been taken from this
brochure)
CBS, 2012
Address: www.cbs.nl / www.statline.cbs.nl /
http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=03759ned&D1=0,3,6,9,12&D2=129132&D3=781-782&D4=(l-1)-l&VW=T /
http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/default.aspx?DM=SLNL&PA=03759ned&D1=0%2c3%2c6
%2c9%2c12&D2=129-132&D3=781-782&D4=(l-1)-l&HDR=T&STB=G2%2cG1%2cG3&VW=D
(Accessed 20-08-2012)
Centrum Plan Valkenburg, 2012
Address: http://www.centrumplanvalkenburg.nl (Accessed 20-09-2012)
City of Wellness in the heart of Europe, ZKA Consultants & Planners (2008)
Competitive Identity; the new brand management for nations, cities and regions, Simon Anholt
(2007) – Palgrave Macmillan
Destination brands; managing place reputation, Nigel Morgan, Annette Pritchard and Roger Pride
(2011) – Elsevier Ltd.
Destination life cycle model, Butler (1980)
Een groene weldadige stad, GOMV (2009)
Facebook Gemeente Valkenburg, 2012
Address: https://www.facebook.com/gemvalkenburg?fref=ts (Accessed 28-11-2012)
Facebook VVV Zuid-Limburg, 2012
Address: https://www.facebook.com/vvvzuidlimburg (Accessed 28-11-2012)
Fluweelengrot, 2012
Address: http://www.fluweelengrot.nl/fotoalbums/kasteelruine (Accessed 29-11-2012)Gemeente op
maat; Valkenburg aan de Geul, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2011)
Gastcollege Citymarketing, Janneke Houben and John Wauben, Gemeente Valkenburg (2012)
Gemeente Valkenburg, 2012
Address: http://www.valkenburg.nl /
http://www.valkenburg.nl/index.php?simaction=content&mediumid=7&pagid=235&fontsize=12
(Accessed 23-08-2012)
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Global Wellness Valkenburg, 2008
Address: http://www.globalwellnessvalkenburg.nl/actueel/nieuws.htm (Accessed 10-11-2012)
GOMV, 2012
Address: http://edit.gomv.nl (Accessed 29-10-2012)
How to brand nations, cities and destinations, Teemu Moilanen and Seppo Rainisto (2009) – Palgrave
Macmillan
Kerststad Valkenburg, 2012
Address: http://kerststadvalkenburg.nl/ (Accessed 28-11-2012)
Marketing-activiteitenplan, VVV Zuid-Limburg (2012)
Marketing insight; the aging consumer, Tourism Ireland (2004)
Mega event = Mega impact? Travelling Fans’ experience and perceptions of the 2006 FIFA World Cup
Host Nation, Magdalena Florek, Tim Breitbarth and Francisco Conejo (August 2008)– Journal of Sport
& Tourism
Mind the Gap; stappenplan identiteit en imago, Jaap van der Grinten (2010) – Boom/ Lemma
Ondergronds Valkenburg, 2012
Address: http://www.ondergrondsvalkenburg.nl/catID=8/articleID=16/ (Accessed 20-09-2012)
Openluchttheater Valkenburg, 2012
Address: http://www.openluchttheater-valkenburg.nl (Accessed 28-10-2012)
Place branding; glocal, virtual and physical identities, constructed, imagined and experienced, Robert
Govers and Frank Go (2009) – Palgrave Macmillan
Places; identity, image and reputation, Simon Anholt (2010) – Palgrave Macmillan
Presentatie economisch-toeristische cijfers t/m 2011, Gemeente Valkenburg (2012)
Presentatie overnachtingen cijfers & grafieken, Gemeente Valkenburg (2011)
Provincie Limburg, 2012
Address: http://www.limburg.nl (Accessed 01-09-2012)
RECRON, 2012
Address: http://www.recron.nl/ (Accessed 06-11-2012)
RECRON Innovatie Campagne, 2012
Address: http://www.recroninnovatiecampagne.nl (Accessed 06-11-2012)
Social Research Methods, Alan Bryman (2008) – Oxford University Press Inc.
Strategic brand management; building, measuring, and managing brand equity, Kevin Lane Keller
(2008) – Pearson Education
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Survey System, 2012
Address: http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm (Accessed 10-07-2012)
Thesis Student Handbook; Semester 6, NHTV University of Applied Sciences (2011)
Thesis Tools, 2012
Address: http://www.thesistools.com/ (Accessed 10-09-2012)
Toeristische Trendkrant, Provincie Limburg (2012)
Toeristische Trendrapportage Limburg 2011-2012, Provincie Limburg (2012)
Toekomstvisie 2012; Een verkenning, Gemeente Valkenburg (2007)
Tourism Management, David B. Weaver (2000) – Elsevier Ltd.
Towards effective place brand management: branding European cities and regions, Ashworth &
Kavaratzis (2010) – Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
Twitter Gemeente Valkenburg, 2012
Address: https://twitter.com/gemvalkenburg (Accessed 28-11-2012)
Twitter VVV Zuid-Limburg, 2012
Address: https://twitter.com/vvv_zuidlimburg (Accessed 28-11-2012)
Valkenburg Leeft!; Herstel identiteit zorgt voor hoger rendement, ZKA Markt & Beleid (2001)
VOC Valkenburg, 2012
Address: http://www.vocvalkenburg.nl/ (Accessed 30-10-2012)
VVV Zuid-Limburg, 2012
Address: http://www.vvvzuidlimburg.nl /
http://www.vvvzuidlimburg.nl/ontdekken/regio_valkenburgaandegeul.aspx (Accessed 10-09-2012)
Wegwijzer Zuid-Limburg, VVV Zuid-Limburg (2012)
When fit matters: Leveraging destination and event image congruence, Magdalena Florek and
Andrea Insch (2011) - Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management
Interviewees
Bart Kurris, Holland Casino Valkenburg (Sales/ Marketing) – Date: 08-10-2012
Ilja Castermans-Godfried, Provincie Limburg (Accountmanager Leisure) – Date: 10-09-2012
John Wauben, Gemeente Valkenburg (Project Manager) – Dates: 12-06-2012/ 26-10-2012
Nicole Schurgers, VVV Zuid-Limburg (Regional Manager) – Date: 24-09-2012
Tanya Reinards, Landal Green Parks (Assistant Park Manager) – Date: 11-09-2012
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7. Appendices
(Source: www.ondergrondsvalkenburg.nl, 2012)
A sand creation in Christmas spirits,
a unique set up for this year’s Christmas market in the caves of Valkenburg.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.1 Notes from the interviews
Provincie Limburg – Ilja Castermans-Godfried (Accountmanager Leisure) 10-09-2012
De regio Zuid-Limburg is momenteel bezig met een grootse campagne genaamd “Liefde voor het
Leven”, om het toerisme in de regio te promoten. (www.liefdevoorhetleven.nl)
De VVV is verantwoordelijk voor de promotie, de provincie stuurt het aan om de sector te
stimuleren. De VVV verzorgt het toerisme op lokaal en regionaal niveau. Er is goede samenwerking
tussen de VVV’s om het toerisme voor Limburg in het algemeen ook te verbeteren. De
samenwerkende VVV’s van Noord-/Midden-/ Zuid- Limburg en Maastricht verzorgen de promotie.
De toeristen in Limburg zijn grotendeels uit Nederland, al zijn er ook campagnes in Duitsland om
meer duitse toeristen te trekken. Dit wordt in samenwerking gedaan met lokale promoters in
Duitsland. De evenementen en historie zijn belangrijke trekpleisters.
Valkenburg is bekend voor o.a. Thermae 2000/ Holland Casino/ Landal GreenParks en de attracties.
Het heeft een gezellige binnenstad, het is een leuk stadje
Verder zijn de grotten van groot belang voor het toerisme, net als de kerstmarkten (ook o.a. in de
grotten). Verder is er nog het openlucht theater (cultuur/historie).
Helaas zijn er ook veel verpauperde delen in de stad, die nodig gerenoveerd of gerestaureerd
moeten worden.
Vroeger waren er veel jongeren en campings, waardoor het een massa toerisme bestemming werd
waar veel gefeest werd.
De (kleine) ondernemers zijn vaak niet voldoende meegegaan met de tijd. Een goed voorbeeld van
hoe het zou kunnen komt uit Epen, waar een hotel met huisjes en zorg appartementen is voor de
oudere doelgroep, dit is vooruitkijken aangezien de bevolking vergrijst en de 55+ers een belangrijke
markt is.
Het Red Bull Crashed Ice event was een belangrijk evenement voor Valkenburg wat voor veel
promotie en media aandacht heeft gezorgd, het had ook een frisse en jonge uitstraling.
Het is belangrijk om Valkenburg geen suf imago te laten krijgen, hier zijn ze ook nadrukkelijk mee
bezig door het upgraden van de stad en de activiteiten.
Aan de andere kant kan de gemeente ook tegenwerkend zijn in sommige gevallen, waardoor
ondernemers niet altijd hun gang kunnen gaan. Hierdoor wordt de ontwikkeling ook geremd.
een voorbeeld hiervan is het sprookjesbos, wat overgenomen zou worden en een park met
accommodatie wilde worden, wat helaas afgewezen werd. Deze innovatie is ook nodig om een
jonger publiek te trekken en mee te gaan in de tijd.
Valkenburg en het Heuvelland staan voor rust, het landschap, de ruimte
Heerlen staat voor attracties (snowworld, funshopping)
Brunssum voor Nature wonderworld
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
De samenwerking tussen provincie en gemeente is goed. De VVV, KvK en gemeente komen ongeveer
iedere 6-8 weken bij elkaar
De provincie heeft een aanjaag functie, om nieuwe dingen op te zetten, partijen te verbinden en
subsidies te verstrekken.
een voorbeeld hiervan is de subsidie die ondernemers kunnen krijgen (tot wel 40.000 euro) voor
innovatieve ideeen te ontwikkelen.
De gemeente moet hierin stimuleren, en de ondernemers hiervan op de hoogte stellen.
er zijn ook ondernemers conferenties en bijeenkomsten in Limburg, waar dit soort dingen aan de
man worden gebracht. Verder worden hier toekomstplannen besproken, workshops gegeven en
manieren van innoveren op tafel gelegd.
Het toerisme is een van de 5 top sectoren in Limburg, in Valkenburg zelfs de top sector.
De regels en wetten belemmeren de ondernemers om verder te ontwikkelen en hun ding te doen,
wellicht een idee om dit te versoepelen? Dit stimuleert ook de kracht om te innoveren.
Op het moment is Limburg de 2e van Nederland qua marktaandeel en de 1e qua uitgaven. In de
toekomst zal dit gehandhaafd moeten worden en proberen de toeristen meer te laten uitgeven om
een stijgende lijn in te zetten. De evenementen en juiste regiobranding zijn hiervoor van groot
belang. Bijvoorbeeld het WK Wielrennen was een groots evenement wat voor veel bekendheid en
exposie heeft gezorgd.
De nieuwe vertrekplaats van Ryanair bij Maastricht biedt ook kansen voor Valkenburg, aangezien het
makkelijker te bereiken is, ook voor buitenlandse toeristen. Maastricht zou als basis plaats kunnen
fungeren, waar Valkenburg een leuk uitstapje zou zijn, zeker ook voor de kerstmarkten die uiterst
populair zijn.
Het landschap is een USP voor Zuid Limburg
De innovatiekracht moet omhoog in de toekomst om mee te gaan met de tijd
De uitgaven van toeristen moeten omhoog om een sterk marktaandeel te blijven bezetten
Ook van groot belang is de balans tussen landschap en het toerisme; hoeveel staan we toe?
Er is een visie voor het landschap, hoe het eruit moet zijn, het is van groot belang en daarom ook van
belang om het te behouden. Aan de andere kant is er de behoefte voor bijvoorbeeld activiteiten en
“groene” energie zoals windmolens, die het landschap en het zicht aantasten. Hier moeten de
overheid en de ondermeners een juiste balans in zien te vinden.
De afgelopen jaren is er een sterke trend in 55+ ers en jonge gezinnen met kinderen, die de regio
bezoeken.
VVV Zuid-Limburg – Nicole Schurgers (Regiomanager) 24-09-2012
Is de regiomanager voor o.a. Valkenburg
De contactpersoon voor de gemeente en de ondernemers
De link in citymarketing
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Valkenburg is de enige gemeente van een aparte vermelding in de VVV zuid limburg en hun
brochures, dit laat al zien hoe belangrijk Valkenburg is.
Liefde voor het leven is de campagne van de samenwerkende VVV’s
“Asperge commercial” heeft voor veel ophef gezorgd dankzij de erotisch getinte stijl van het spotje,
echter dit is wel weer promotie
Valkenburg en Zuid-Limburg is bekend door zijn landschap, bourgondische karakter en euregionale
ligging. Er zijn ook vele attracties en activiteiten te doen. De grotten zijn ook uniek aan Valkenburg.
De gemeente doet het overleg met ondernemers. De VVV gebruikt zijn expertise in het toerisme om
dit te ontwikkelen.
Het nieuwe wellness thema heeft een boost gegeven aan het Thermae 2000
De bedoeling is om kwaliteit na te streven in de komende jaren.
De trendrapportage van het VVV geeft aan wat de huidige trends zijn en hoe het toerisme zich
ontwikkelt. Momenteel is 90% van de markt Nederlands, al wordt deze markt kleiner. Er is in 2009
een marketing bureau opgericht in Duitsland, om daar Valkenburg en Zuid Limburg te promoten
onder de Duitse toeristen. Verder ligt de focus ook op Engeland en natuurlijk Belgie. De compactheid
van Zuid-Limburg is een grote trekpleister voor buitenlandse toeristen.
Het WK Wielrennen was van groot belang voor de regio en zorgde voor een ‘extra’ vakantie periode
voor kort verblijf. Verder heeft het veel media aandacht op geleverd.
De VVV verstrekt informatie aan klanten/ toeristen, ondernemers en gemeente
De gemeente is opvolgend dan in contact met de inwoners.
De toekomstvisie voor Valkenburg is “wellness”
Dit kan gezien worden in de brede zin van het woord, het nieuwe winkelcentrum wat eraan komt, de
cultuur straat, het historische centrum en het leeuw bier terrein. Verder wordt er gepromoot als
Kerststad en als wielerstad. De ondernemers moeten de kansen zien en ook meer gaan benutten. Er
moet ook meer internationaal gedacht worden om de ontwikkeling gaande te houden.
In Duitsland liggen veel kansen, er wonen zeer veel duitsers net over de grens. Er zijn onderzoeken
bezig om te kijken hoe Zuid Limburg die toeristen kan aantrekken, Valkenburg en de regio zijn
namelijk niet bekend in die regio.
De eisen van Duitsers zijn heel anders en daarom moeten ondernemers ook meer innoveren en
kwaliteit waarborgen om andere markten aan te trekken.
Vroeger was Valkenburg een massa toerisme bestemming voor jongeren (campings, feesten). Nu is
het nog steeds een massa toerisme bestemming alleen zijn de voornaamste doelgroepen koppels,
jonge gezinnen met kinderen en ouderen.
De evenementen zijn van groot belang voor de stad. Red Bull Crashed Ice was een groots succes
maar heeft een heel ander imago. Wil Valkenburg als sport stad gezien worden of als wielerstad?
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
In Valkenburg is altijd iets te beleven!
Een samenkomst van regionale inwoners en andere Nederlanders.
Het is een grote attractie!
Ondernemers kunnen/ moeten als 1 geheel samenwerken
Winkelaanbod moet vergroot worden en kwaliteit waargeborgd, funshoppen is iets voor de
toekomst.
Holland Casino – Bart Kurris (Sales/ Marketing) 08-10-2012
Het grootste deel van de klanten komt uit Nederland. Ongeveer 25% komt uit het buitenland,
ongeveer 15% belgen en 10% duitsers, die net over de grens wonen.
Meestal blijven ze niet overnachten, tenzij het een vakantie periode is. Tijdens de vakantie periode is
het een toeristen casino, anders zijn het de vaste gasten.
Valkenburg is een toeristenstad pur sang, het is kleinschalig, een gezellig stadscentrum met veel
horeca. De grotten zijn een grote trekpleister, ook voor buitenlandse toeristen. Verder is het een
wielerwereldstad en een echte kerststad. Ze houden zich goed staande met bv. Maastricht naast
zich.
Het wellness thema heeft niet direct toepassing op het Holland Casino maar ze werken wel mee
door bv. Arrangementen te maken met het Thermae 2000. Het is een aantrekkelijke markt
aangezien het vaak meer te besteden heeft.
De evenementen zijn van groot belang voor Valkenburg maar de infrastructuur zorgt voor veel
problemen. Het WK Wielrennen, de bokkemarkt en Red Bull Crashed Ice zorgen ervoor dat het
centrum vast staat en niemand er echt meer goed uitkan. Dit is vervelend voor inwoners die er geen
rekening mee houden.
Er zijn veel bedrijven in Valkenburg die achterop blijven qua ontwikkeling. Er zijn goede voorbeelden
van hotels die aangepakt worden en gerenoveerd en “ge upgrade” worden, dit is nodig om bij de tijd
te blijven. Ook het sprookjesbos en thermae 2000 zijn rijp voor een upgrade. Het is belangrijk voor
om bij te blijven en iedereen op de hoogte te houden van de ontwikkelingen. Herinvesteren is de key
to success, het Holland Casino zal dit ook gaan doen. Verder zijn er attracties die outdated zijn en
dus ook ontwikkeld moeten worden.
Valkenburg kent vergrijzing en een outflow van jonge mensen, waardoor er potentieel weg gaat.
De campagne “Je zult er maar wonen” erg vreemd, negatief ingezet.
De omgeving is leuk en ideaal om te wonen, het is goed geprijsd en de extreme seizoenen zijn niet
meer net als vroeger, nu is er ook de kerstperiode en evenementen tussendoor.
Verder is de upgrade van Landal goed, met mooie bungalows.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Er zou betere verspreiding over het jaar mogelijk zijn, nu is het over na een evenement, en is het een
‘dood’ stadje. Verder is upgraden van groot belang voor de toekomst. Dit verbetert het aanzicht van
de stad en ook de kwaliteit.
Er zijn vele culture evenementen en ook sportieve, wat goed past bij de stad.
Red Bull Crashed Ice was spectaculair en een boost voor de stad. Veel promotie, ook op TV. Het
succes begon een beetje tegen te werken en men werd geweerd uit de stad, parkeren was bij het
MECC en bussen en treinen reden naar Valkenburg.
Het was spannend, en met een fris imago, dit paste ook goed bij Holland Casino, het was ook een
prettige samenwerking. Helaas keert het niet terug zoals het er nu uitziet.
Het Holland Casino heeft een goede samenwerking met de gemeente, provincie en instanties.
er is een directe samenwerking. Het Holland Casino wil meewerken, meedenken en sponsoren bij
bijvoorbeeld grote evenementen. Ook promoties worden vaak samen gedaan. Het is belangrijk om
te centraliseren en samen te denken over de toekomst van Valkenburg. Het casino heeft invloed in
Valkenburg, het is ook een zeer grote werkgever en wij worden daarom serieus genomen.
Het kuurpark, de toekomst wil dat er minder evenementen worden gehouden maar deze
evenementen zijn ook weer goed voor de stad en het toerisme. Het is een moeilijke keuze.
Het wellness thema is goed voor de stad maar het moet ook nagestreefd worden. De punten zijn
uitgezet maar een echte lijn zit er nog niet echt in. Het thema betreft wel meerdere doelgroepen en
dit is goed voor de stad. Het trekt de oudere markt aan maar ook de jongeren, beide toeristen maar
ook lokale mensen.
We zijn trots op Valkenburg en het Holland Casino en hun naamsbekendheid.
Het is een gezellig, bourgondisch stadje.
Het is knap dat ze al tientallen jaren eruit springen in het toerisme. Iedereen kent het.
Het klein, historisch, gezellig, een kerststad, een wielerstad en een echte toeristen stad.
Met carnaval zijn er ook tradities genaamd het oude wijvenbal. Op de donderdag avond, het is een
regionale traditie geworden waar er verder niet veel te doen is in Valkenburg, maar die avond is het
heel druk!
Landal GreenParks – Tanya Reinards (Assistant park manager) 11-09-2012
90% van de toeristen komt uit Nederland
5% Belgen
5% Overige (3% Duits)
Er komen veel mensen uit de randstad, maar ook uit de rest van het land.
Een grote groep met 55+ ers, maar ook gezinnen met kinderen en veel wielersporters/ vrienden
groepen.
Over het algemeen zijn er veel midweek/ weekend gasten die ong. 2-4 nachten blijven.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Valkenburg is bekend voor zijn mergel, de grotten, de historie (al hoewel dit niet echt een
trekpleister is). Verder is het een echt gezellig stadje met leuke terrasjes. Zuid-Limburg staat ook
bekend voor zijn natuur en landschap
Valkenburg en Maastricht zijn concurrenten maar ook heel erg verschillend. Maastricht is de grote
stad, Valkenburg heeft de rust en het landschap.
Zuid-Limburg “The bright side of life”
Valkenburg kent veelzijdigheid en heeft een groot aanbod.
het heeft een belangrijke toeristische historie en is ‘puur’
Het heeft een natuurlijk verloop gehad in het verleden
Vroeger had het een imago als zuip bestemming “salou” (ongeveer 20 jaar terug)
Nu is het iets luxer, minder jongeren en meer kwaliteit.
Landal was vroeger de Eurocamping, nu is het dus kwalitatief vooruit gegaan en is het upgraded.
Het nieuwe centrum wordt ook iets gelikter, meer kwaliteit
Het biedt verbeteringen voor de toerist, de voetganger en de winkel bieden ook meer kwaliteit.
Het wellness thema heeft als doelgroep de 55 +ers. Dit is in de brede zin van het woord. Genieten
van restaurants, winkels, boutiques maar ook medical wellness en jezelf laten verwennen.
Het Landal heeft goede contacten met de gemeente en helpen ook actief mee met evenementen.
Ook met het casino en het Thermae 2000 is er goed contact.
Over het algemeen is er weinig solidariteit onder de ondernemers in de stad.
Tijdens de kerstperiode en andere grote evenementen in de stad sluit niet iedereen zich aan bij de
gemeente. Enkele ondernemers willen bijvoorbeeld niet mee werken aan de extra belastingen
Landal heeft invloed in de stad, maar dit is dankzij de grootte van het bedrijf.
Het doet ook mee aan de promotie van de stad, maar alleen als dit ook past bij het bedrijf Landal
Ja ik ben trots op Valkenburg, een prachtige lokatie en je kan hier van alles doen.
Het is beter niet groter te worden, maar meer kwaliteit na te streven en de uitgavenpost te
vergroten.
Vaak is het tijdens evenementen wel lastig voor inwoners, er wordt weinig geregeld. Al is het maar
enkele keren in het jaar dat het daadwerkelijk schadelijk is voor de inwoners.
Valkenburg:
Een eeuwenoud gezellig toeristen stadje bekend om zijn mergelgrotten, gezellige terrasjes, en
vertier voor jong en oud. Het is voor mensen die veelzijdigheid zoeken.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Gemeente Valkenburg – John Wauben (Projectmanager) 12-06-2012
Albert van Schendel is ook van belang, het is een docent van NHTV die onderzoek doet in deze regio
naar o.a. de Amstel Gold Race en het WK Wielrennen.
Valkenburg is gebouwd op toerisme. De sector is 80% van de lokale economie en daarom van groot
belang voor de stad.
Het is belangrijk een balans te vinden tussen het toerisme en het leefgebied voor de inwoners. Dit is
de rode draad voor de toekomst.
Het is belangrijk om samen te werken en draagvlak te creeren.
Valkenburg heeft een ‘oud’ imago, maar richt zich ook op jongeren
Enkele voorbeelden zijn de Pop en Top en Red Bull Crashed Ice evenementen
Janneke Houben kun je contacteren voor de statistieken van het toerisme.
Gemeente Valkenburg – John Wauben (Projectmanager) 26-10-2012
Ik kan de enquetes door sturen naar de verenigingen in Valkenburg, in de hoop dat hun het door
kunnen sturen naar de leden, om zodoende meer response te genereren op de online enquete.
Valkenburg is natuur, cultuur, vele voorzieningen, een mooie omgeving/landschap, de Geul, kleine
weggetjes. Het is ook goed bereikbaar en heeft autowegen naar omliggende gebieden in Belgie en
Duitsland. Er liggen ook veel vormen van kastelen in de buurt en het landschap heeft iets unieks,
zeker voor Nederlandse begrippen. Een mooi voorbeeld van een kasteel is die van St Gerlach.
Er zit in de buurt ook een internationale butleracademie, die goed aangeschreven staat en maar een
van de weinige in de wereld is.
Het gebied ligt aan de rivier de Geul, wat het ook uniek maakt. Verder zijn er vele historische
gebouwen in het centrum, wat bijdraagt aan de cultuur van de stad. Het is belangrijk om deze
gebouwen in stand te houden en de stad niet te laten verloederen, hier vechten we ook fanatiek
voor. Er zijn vele horeca gelegenheden, hotels, restaurants en winkels. Het is de bedoeling dat er in
de toekomst meer kleine winkels komen, met een goede kwaliteit. De wat duurdere kledingzaken,
en speciaalzaken zoals Proef & Kies Wijnen zullen bijdragen aan de belevenis wanneer je Valkenburg
bezoekt. Natuurlijk zullen de goedkopere winkels ook blijven bestaan, wat natuurlijk ook van groot
belang is, maar we proberen zoveel mogelijk kwaliteits winkels aan te trekken in de toekomst, die
ook passen bij de stad.
De citymarketing is in grote lijnen uitgezet maar nog niet uitgebracht.
In het verleden had Valkenburg een naam als zuip en vreet bestemming, hier proberen we actief
vanaf te komen. Er zijn nog steeds vele souvenirwinkeltjes, kitsch en verschillen in aankleding van de
winkels en stad. Hier zit al vooruitgang in en hier zijn we ook al jaren mee bezig, maar het zal nog
even duren voor het volledig is aangepast. Er zijn ook vele ondernemers die het nut niet inzien
aangezien het altijd goed is gegaan, waarom veranderen? Dit is een probleem.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Er heeft een project gelopen waarbij innovatieve investeerders kan maken op een subsidie tot wel
40.000 euro. Ik weet nog niet hoe dit is verlopen aangezien het via een andere afdeling gaat. Er
wordt dus wel gestimuleerd om de ondernemers te laten vernieuwen.
Er ligt een grote druk op de infrastructuur en de parkeergelegenheid in Valkenburg, voornamelijk
tijdens grote evenementen. Soms wordt er bijvoorbeeld doorverwezen naar MECC Maastricht, maar
dit is niet ideaal. Het nieuwe centrumplan zal een logischere route in de stad en meer
parkeergelegenheid creeeren. Tijdens grote evenementen zoals de bokkemarkt, het WK wielrennen,
de kerstmarkt en vakantie periodes is het vooral een groot probleem, ook voor de inwoners.
Valkenburg is een relatief kleine stad met 17.000 inwoners. Het heeft echter de voorzieningen van
een grote stad, aangezien het toerisme zo groot is hier. Dit is lastig om bij te houden en grote
projecten op te zetten, aangezien de gemeente een budget heeft voor een kleine stad met 17.000
inwoners.
Het nieuwe Wellness thema: “Genieten en ontspannen”
-
Culinair
-
Sport
-
Cultuur
-
Kerst
We hebben al de Thermae2000, de prachtige en rustgevende natuur en vele andere gelegenheden
die erbij passen zoals het dialesiecentrum, een centrum voor plastisch chirurgie, enkele prive
klinieken, sauna’s, verpleeghuizen en verzorgingshuizen. Verder is er een samenwerking met het
academisch ziekenhuis om te kijken voor een centrum voor hartpatienten.
Dit alles staat in het teken van rusten en recreeren.
Verder is er ook het chateau St. Gerlach, waar men kan kuren en hoogwaardige behandelingen kan
krijgen. Dit kun je terugvinden op: http://www.chateauhotels.nl/default.aspx?id=59&taal=en&sc=6
De ondernemers willen veel, maar soms zijn er ondernemers die niet mee willen werken/ betalen
aan de evenementen zoals bv. De kerst periode. Er komen veel kosten bij kijken om de stad hier
klaar voor te maken en dit kan niet alleen betaald worden door de gemeente. Nu zal er wellicht
belasting moeten betaald worden om alsnog de financien op orde te krijgen. De stichting kerststad,
waar de gemeente ook inzit, houdt zich hiermee bezig.
De gemeente helpt ook bedrijven 1 op 1, om te kijken waar de mogelijkheden liggen en hoe ze zich
kunnen ontwikkelen. Er worden subsidies gegeven om ze te stimuleren. Echter zijn er ook nog veel
ondernemers erg terughoudend, wat de ontwikkeling remt.
VOC Valkenburg Ondenemers Collectief: http://www.vocvalkenburg.nl/site/over-voc.html
De stichting evenementen, stichting kerststad zijn alle voorbeelden van initiatieven tussen
ondernemers en de gemeente om samen verder te komen.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Er is ook een zogenaamd ‘kernoverleg’ tussen de gemeente en de verschillende kernen van de
gemeente. Een van de kernen is ook uitgeroepen tot het op een na groenste dorp van Nederland. Dit
zal ook gebruikt worden in de promotie hiervan.
De inwoners van de gemeente hebben altijd iets te klagen, dit is ook logisch. Maar als gemeente kun
je niet alles toekennen. De laatste 10-15 jaar proberen we het vertrouwen in de gemeente weer
terug te krijgen door meer samen te werken en te luisteren naar de inwoners.
We werken ook samen met andere gemeenten om grote projecten aan te pakken die we niet alleen
kunnen bekostigen. De krimpnotitie.
Verder is een groot probleem dat we in de crisis leven, waardoor veel huizen niet worden verkocht.
De oudere generatie verhuist niet meer en hierdoor is er niet voldoende aanbod voor de jonge
generatie. Het is een dubbele vergrijzing.
Er komen ook ander soort aanvragen binnen om bijvoorbeeld 1 huis in 2 te splitsen zodat de
kinderen bij de ouders kunnen wonen. Nieuwbouw is er eigenlijk niet meer.
Er wordt samengewerkt met ondernemers om het historisch centrum te behouden en nieuw leven
in te blazen. Verder is er ook een industrieterrein beschikbaar gesteld voor bedrijven die zich willen
vestigen en kijken we naar de vergunningen en belastingen, om te kijken hoe we het makkelijker
voor de ondernemers kunnen maken, en wellicht voordeliger.
Project Tripool: Sittard-Geleen/ Maastricht/ Heerlen/ Parkstad
GOMV: maastricht –valkenburg- meerssen (geul verbinding)
leeuwbrouwerij, streekproducten, wandel en fiets route tussen Valkenburg en Maastricht
Heerlen focust zich op nieuwe energie maar hier is nog niet veel van aanwezig
Aachen heeft ook wat windmolens staan
Groen ondernemen is niet echt de trend in Valkenburg, er zijn ook veel oudere gebouwen.
Tot slot:
Valkenburg is een gemeente met veel mogelijkheden, het is intiem, er heerst een gevoel van
ontspanning en het ‘even op vakantie’ zijn.
Kansen: ontspannen, heerlijk, duurzame lampen, kitsch eruit, reclame/luifel moeten uniformer
de mergelgrotten, dorpskernen.
Het is meer dan het centrum alleen.
Het centrumplan duurt nog ongeveer 2-3 jaar en er zullen meer smallere wegen komen om het
intiemer te maken. Verder zullen er ook nieuwe gebouwen komen, gebouwd in de oude stijl.
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.2 Questionnaires
7.2.1 Questionnaire residents Valkenburg
Bart Stevens is een HBO student internationaal toerisme op het NHTV te Breda en doet momenteel zijn scriptie over het
imago van Valkenburg. Deze enquete is opgesteld om het imago van Valkenburg als woonplaats te meten. De inwoners
worden gevraagd naar hun verwachtingen en ervaringen met hun woonplaats. Eerst zult u enkele demografische vragen
krijgen, waarna de enquete overgaat op een lijst met verwachtingen en ervaringen. Tot slot worden er enkele stellingen
voorgelegd om te kijken in hoeverre u het hiermee eens bent. Het is van groot belang dat u de enquete naar waarheid
invult.
Alvast bedankt en veel plezier met het invullen van deze enquete, uw medewerking wordt zeer op prijs gesteld!
1. Wat is uw geslacht?
⃝ Man
⃝ Vrouw
2. Wat is uw geboortejaar?
....
3. Wat is uw postcode?
......
4. Wat is uw hoogst voltooide opleiding?
⃝ Lager onderwijs
⃝ LBO/ VMBO
⃝ MAVO
⃝ MBO
⃝ HAVO/ VWO
⃝ HBO
⃝ WO
5. Hoe lang woont u al in Valkenburg?
⃝ Minder dan 1 jaar
⃝ 1-5 jaren
⃝ 5-10 jaren
⃝ Meer dan 10 jaar
6. Werkt u in de toeristische/ horeca sector in Valkenburg?
⃝ Ja
⃝ Nee
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The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Hieronder vindt u een lijst met aspecten van de stad Valkenburg. De eerste lijst gaat over de
verwachtingen die u heeft van Valkenburg als woonplaats, de tweede lijst gaat over hoe u
Valkenburg daadwerkelijk ervaart als woonplaats. Kruist u alstublieft aan in hoeverre het aspect voor
u belangrijk is.
1 = Helemaal niet belangrijk
2 = Onbelangrijk
3 = Neutraal
4 = Belangrijk
5 = Heel erg belangrijk
6 = Weet ik niet/ Geen mening
Uw verwachting van Valkenburg op het gebied van de onderstaande aspecten
1
2
3
4
5
6
7. Veiligheid
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
8. Parkeergelegenheid
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
9. Natuurlandschap
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
10. Sportfaciliteiten
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
11. Kunst en cultuur
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
12. De sfeer in de stad
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
13. De sfeer tussen inwoners
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
14. Toegankelijkheid (wegen)
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
15. Openbaar vervoer
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
16. Een goede balans tussen evenementen/ rust in
de stad
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
17. Een goede balans tussen toerisme/ het
woongebied
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
93
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Uw ervaring met Valkenburg op het gebied van de onderstaande aspecten
Hoe ervaart u de onderstaande aspecten in de stad? U kunt dit aangeven op een schaal van 1 tot 5,
vult u alstublieft 6 in als u er geen mening over heeft.
1 = Helemaal niet goed
2 = Niet goed
3 = Neutraal
4 = Goed
5 = Heel erg goed
6 = Weet ik niet/ Geen mening
1
2
3
4
5
6
18. Veiligheid
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
19. Parkeergelegenheid
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
20. Natuurlandschap
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
21. Sportfaciliteiten
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
22. Kunst en cultuur
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
23. De sfeer in de stad
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
24. De sfeer tussen inwoners
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
25. Toegankelijkheid (wegen)
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
26. Openbaar vervoer
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
27. Een goede balans tussen evenementen/ rust in
de stad
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
28. Een goede balans tussen toerisme/ het
woongebied
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
94
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Hieronder vindt u een lijst met stellingen. Geeft u alstublieft aan in hoeverre u het met de volgende
stellingen eens bent;
1 = Helemaal niet
2 = Niet
3 = Neutraal
4 = Wel
5 = Helemaal wel
6 = Weet ik niet/ Geen mening
1
2
3
4
5
6
29. De gemeente luistert goed naar de mening van
de inwoners
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
30. Er is een goede balans tussen het toerisme en
het woongebied
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
31. Er zijn teveel evenementen in Valkenburg
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
32. Het stadscentrum is leuk en gezellig
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
33. Ik ben trots op Valkenburg
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
34. Ik ben blij in Valkenburg te wonen
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
35. Het toerisme is belangrijk voor Valkenburg
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
Valkenburg gaat zich in de toekomst meer richten op healthcare & wellness toerisme en zakelijk
toerisme. In hoeverre kunt u zich hierin vinden?
1
2
3
4
5
6
36. Valkenburg is een goede bestemming voor
zakelijk toerisme
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
37. Healthcare & wellness toerisme is de toekomst
voor Valkenburg
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
38. Als u Valkenburg een cijfer moest geven als woonplaats, wat voor cijfer zou u dan geven? (tussen
de 1-10).
..
Heeft u verder nog opmerkingen over de enquete of wilt u aanvullende informatie geven over uw
visie op Valkenburg? Dit kunt u hieronder schrijven.
95
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.2.2 Questionnaire tourists Valkenburg
Bart Stevens is een HBO student internationaal toerisme op het NHTV te Breda en doet momenteel zijn scriptie over het
imago van Valkenburg. Deze enquete is opgesteld om het imago van Valkenburg als toeristische bestemming te meten. De
toeristen worden gevraagd naar waarden en kenmerken van de stad en wat zij als ‘typisch Valkenburg’ ervaren. Eerst
worden er enkele demografische vragen gesteld waarna de enquete overgaat op een lijst van stellingen. Hier wordt
gekeken in hoeverre u het met de stellingen eens bent. Het is van groot belang dat u de enquete naar waarheid invult.
Alvast bedankt en veel plezier met het invullen van deze enquete, uw medewerking wordt zeer op prijs gesteld!
1. Wat is uw geslacht?
⃝ Man
⃝ Vrouw
2. Wat is uw geboortejaar?
....
3. Wat is uw postcode?
......
4. Wat is uw hoogst voltooide opleiding?
⃝ Lager onderwijs
⃝ LBO/ VMBO
⃝ MAVO
⃝ MBO
⃝ HAVO/ VWO
⃝ HBO
⃝ WO
⃝ Met familie
⃝ Met man/vrouw
5. Wat is de samenstelling van uw reisgezelschap?
⃝ Alleen
⃝ Met mijn vriend/ vriendin
⃝ Met vriend(en)
6. Bent u al eens eerder in Valkenburg geweest?
⃝ Ja, 1 keer
⃝ Ja, enkele keren
⃝ Ja, meer dan 5 keer ⃝ Nee dit is mijn eerste keer
7. Blijft u overnachten in Valkenburg, en zo ja, hoeveel nachten blijft u?
⃝ Ik blijf niet overnachten
niet
⃝ 1 nacht
⃝ 2 nachten
⃝ 2-4 nachten
⃝ langer dan 4 nachten
⃝ Weet ik
8. Wat zijn volgens u de drie belangrijkste kenmerken van Valkenburg?
⃝ De natuur
⃝ De historische gebouwen
⃝ De grotten
⃝ Het stadscentrum
⃝ De activiteiten (wandelen, fietsen etc.)
⃝ De evenementen (kerstmarkten, wielrennen, red bull crashed ice etc.)
⃝ De winkels
⃝ De romantische sfeer
⃝ Het Holland Casino
⃝ Wellness & Healthcare (Thermae 2000)/ relaxen
96
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
In hoeverre bent u het eens met de onderstaande stellingen?
1 = Helemaal niet
2 = Niet
3 = Neutraal
4 = Wel
5 = Helemaal wel
6 = Weet ik niet/ Geen mening
1
2
3
4
5
6
9. De inwoners van Valkenburg zijn open en gastvrij
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
10. Valkenburg heeft veel leuke activiteiten te bieden
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
11. Valkenburg is een romantische stad
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
12. Valkenburg is een frisse, levendige stad
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
13. Het stadscentrum is leuk, en er hangt een gezellige
sfeer
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
14. Er is voldoende parkeergelegenheid in Valkenburg
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
15. Valkenburg is een ideale plek om vanuit daar de
omgeving te bezoeken
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
16. Valkenburg kent een goede prijs/ kwaliteits
verhouding
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
17. De wegen naar attracties en het centrum staan goed
aangegeven
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
18. Er is gemakkelijk en voldoende informatie te
verkrijgen over wat te doen in Valkenburg
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
19. Ik voel me veilig in Valkenburg
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
20. Valkenburg is een schone en groene stad
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
21. Ik kom naar Valkenburg voor de wellness &
healthcare (bv. Het Thermae 2000)
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
22. Ik kom naar Valkenburg voor het Holland Casino
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
23. Ik kom naar Valkenburg voor de evenementen
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
24. Ik kom naar Valkenburg om te genieten en te
relaxen
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
25. Ik kom naar Valkenburg om te fietsen/ wandelen
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
26. Ik kom naar Valkenburg om te shoppen
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
27. Ik kom naar Valkenburg voor de rijke historie
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
97
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Valkenburg was de eerste stad in Nederland met een VVV kantoor, dit werd meer dan 125 jaar
geleden al opgericht! Valkenburg is dus gewend aan het toerisme en heeft al vele jaren ervaring met
deze industrie.
1
2
3
4
5
6
28. Het toerisme is goed en professioneel geregeld
in Valkenburg
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
29. Valkenburg is aan vernieuwing toe
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
⃝
30. Als u Valkenburg een cijfer moest geven als toeristische bestemming, wat voor cijfer zou u dan
geven? (tussen de 1-10).
..
98
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.3 Map of Valkenburg
Source: VVV Zuid-Limburg, 2012
99
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.4 Inhabitants of Valkenburg aan de Geul
Source: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (CBS), 2012
Inhabitants of Valkenburg aan de Geul/ Limburg and the Netherlands, 2010-2011
Source: Gemeente op maat, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (CBS), 2011
100
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.5 Tourism demand Valkenburg
Source: Municipality Valkenburg, 2012
Source: Municipality Valkenburg, 2012
101
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Source: Municipality Valkenburg, 2012
102
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.6 Broad Context Model
Source: Tourism Management, David B. Weaver, 2000
103
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.7 Tourism impacts on the local economy of Valkenburg
Source: Municipality Valkenburg, 2012
104
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.8 Destination Life Cycle model
105
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.9 SPSS Output Questionnaires
Here one will find all the outcomes of all questions from the quantitative research. The outcomes
from SPSS are a result from the statistics derived from the questionnaires and research conducted.
Below one will find a short explanation of what the abbreviations mean.
The top row displays the question.
The “N” stands for the number of respondents, “Valid” shows how many respondents actually
responded, while “Missing” shows how many values are missing. The mean stands for the average
between the answers of the respondents.
In the column “Frequency”, one will find the absolute numbers of respondents that answered. The
column “Percent” shows the percentage of the total. The column “Valid percentage” shows the valid
percentage of the total (taking missing values into account) – these percentages are used to display
the results in diagrams. The column “Cumulative percent” shows the accumulative percentage of the
values (in the rows).
If values are not displayed, it means that they do not occur in the answers of the respondents. This is
an automatic output from SPSS.
7.9.1 The tourists
There were in total 123 respondents on the questionnaire for the Dutch tourists.
Sex
N=123
Frequency
Valid
Male
Female
Total
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
58
47.15447154
47.15447154
47.15447154
65
52.84552846
52.84552846
100
123
100
100
As one can see above, the sex was almost evenly divided. There were 47,2% male respondents and
52,8% female respondents.
106
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Birth year
N=123
Frequency
Valid
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
1941
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
0.81300813
1944
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
1.62601626
1955
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
2.43902439
1956
2
1.62601626
1.62601626
4.06504065
1957
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
4.87804878
1958
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
5.691056911
1959
2
1.62601626
1.62601626
7.317073171
1960
7
5.691056911
5.691056911
13.00813008
1961
2
1.62601626
1.62601626
14.63414634
1962
2
1.62601626
1.62601626
16.2601626
1963
4
3.25203252
3.25203252
19.51219512
1964
3
2.43902439
2.43902439
21.95121951
1965
2
1.62601626
1.62601626
23.57723577
1966
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
24.3902439
1967
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
25.20325203
1968
2
1.62601626
1.62601626
26.82926829
1969
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
27.64227642
1971
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
28.45528455
1972
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
29.26829268
1973
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
30.08130081
1974
4
3.25203252
3.25203252
33.33333333
1976
2
1.62601626
1.62601626
34.95934959
1977
3
2.43902439
2.43902439
37.39837398
1978
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
38.21138211
1979
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
39.02439024
1980
4
3.25203252
3.25203252
42.27642276
1982
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
43.08943089
1983
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
43.90243902
1984
1
0.81300813
0.81300813
44.71544715
1985
3
2.43902439
2.43902439
47.15447154
1986
2
1.62601626
1.62601626
48.7804878
1987
8
6.504065041
6.504065041
55.28455285
1988
13
10.56910569
10.56910569
65.85365854
1989
13
10.56910569
10.56910569
76.42276423
1990
13
10.56910569
10.56910569
86.99186992
1991
8
6.504065041
6.504065041
93.49593496
1992
2
1.62601626
1.62601626
95.12195122
1993
2
1.62601626
1.62601626
96.74796748
1994
4
3.25203252
3.25203252
100
Total
123
100
100
107
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Level of education
N=123
Mean= 4.943089
Frequency
Valid
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Lower
education
1
0.813008
0.813008
0.813008
LBO/VMBO
6
4.878049
4.878049
5.691057
MAVO
8
6.504065
6.504065
12.19512
MBO
28
22.76423
22.76423
34.95935
HAVO/VWO
26
21.13821
21.13821
56.09756
HBO
49
39.8374
39.8374
95.93496
WO
5
4.065041
4.065041
100
123
100
100
Total
Accompanied by, Have you been in Valkenburg before?, Did/Do you stay overnight?
N
Accompanied
by, during
travel
Have you been
in Valkenburg
before?
Do/Did you stay
overnight?
123
123
123
0
0
0
3.235772358
2.447154472
2.073170732
Valid
Missing
Mean
Accompanied by, during travel
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Valid
Percent
5
4.06504065
4.06504065
4.065041
27
21.95121951
21.95121951
26.01626
With my friend(s)
43
34.95934959
34.95934959
60.97561
With my family
30
24.3902439
24.3902439
85.36585
With my man/ wife
18
14.63414634
14.63414634
100
123
100
100
By myself
With my boyfriend/
girlfriend
Total
Have you been in Valkenburg before?
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Yes, once
14
11.38211382
11.38211382
11.38211
Yes, several times
Yes, more than 5
times
No, this is my first
time
50
40.6504065
40.6504065
52.03252
49
39.83739837
39.83739837
91.86992
10
8.130081301
8.130081301
100
123
100
100
Total
Do/Did you stay overnight?
108
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Frequency
Valid
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
No
67
54.47154472
54.47154472
54.47154
1 night
14
11.38211382
11.38211382
65.85366
2 nights
21
17.07317073
17.07317073
82.92683
2-4 nights
More than 4
nights
11
8.943089431
8.943089431
91.86992
7
5.691056911
5.691056911
97.56098
I do not know
3
2.43902439
2.43902439
100
123
100
100
Total
Pick the three most important features of Valkenburg (in your opinion)
N=123,
There is 1 missing value for the feature “Caves”. There N=122
1 - Nature - Pick the 3 most important features of Valkenburg
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
No
74
60.1626
60.1626
60.1626
Yes
49
39.8374
39.8374
100
123
100
100
Total
2 - Historical Buildings - Pick the 3 most important features of
Valkenburg
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
No
Yes
114
92.68293
92.68293
92.68293
9
7.317073
7.317073
100
123
100
100
Total
3 - Caves - Pick the 3 most important features of Valkenburg
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Missing
Total
Valid
No
39
31.70732
31.96721
31.96721
Yes
83
67.47967
68.03279
100
Total
122
99.18699
100
1
0.813008
System
123
100
4 - City Centre - Pick the 3 most important features of
Valkenburg
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
No
70
56.91057
56.91057
56.91057
Yes
53
43.08943
43.08943
100
123
100
100
Total
5 - Activities (hiking, cycling etc) - Pick the 3 most important
features of Valkenburg
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
No
76
61.78862
61.78862
61.78862
109
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Yes
47
38.21138
38.21138
100
123
100
100
Total
6 - Events (World Cup cycling, Red Bull crashed ice etc). - Pick
the 3 most important features of Valkenburg
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
No
65
52.84553
52.84553
52.84553
Yes
58
47.15447
47.15447
100
123
100
100
Total
7 - Shops - Pick the 3 most important features of Valkenburg
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
No
Yes
116
94.30894
94.30894
94.30894
7
5.691057
5.691057
100
123
100
100
Total
8 - Romantic Atmosphere - Pick the 3 most important features of
Valkenburg
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
No
100
81.30081
81.30081
81.30081
Yes
23
18.69919
18.69919
100
123
100
100
Total
9 - Holland Casino - Pick the 3 most important features of
Valkenburg
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
No
112
91.05691
91.05691
91.05691
Yes
11
8.943089
8.943089
100
123
100
100
Total
10 - Wellness & Healthcare (eg. Thermae2000) - Pick the 3 most
important features of Valkenburg
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
No
95
77.23577
77.23577
77.23577
Yes
28
22.76423
22.76423
100
Total
123
100
100
110
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Statements
N Valid
Missin
g
Mean
Std.
Deviat
ion
Stat
eme
nt:
the
resid
ents
are
open
and
hosp
itabl
e
Stat
eme
nt:
Valk
enbu
rg
has
a lot
of
fun
activi
ties
to
offer
Stat
eme
nt:
Valk
enbu
rg is
a
roma
ntic
city
Stat
eme
nt:
Valk
enbu
rg is
a
fresh
and
lively
city
Stat
eme
nt:
The
city
centr
e is
fun
and
cosy
Stat
eme
nt:
Ther
e are
enou
gh
parki
ng
poss
ibiltie
s in
Valk
enbu
rg
Stat
eme
nt:
Valk
enbu
rg
has
a
good
price
/
quali
ty
ratio
Stat
eme
nt:
Dire
ction
s to
the
centr
e
and
activ
ities
are
good
Stat
eme
nt:
Infor
mati
on is
easil
y
and
readi
ly
avail
able
Stat
eme
nt: I
feel
safe
in
Valk
enbu
rg
Stat
eme
nt:
Valk
enbu
rg is
a
gree
n
and
clea
n
city
122
State
ment:
Valke
nburg
is a
perfe
ct
begin
spot
to
disco
ver
the
surro
undin
gs
123
123
122
123
123
122
123
123
123
123
121
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
4.17
0732
4.22
1311
3.77
2358
3.76
4228
4.27
0492
3.84
4262
4.195
122
3.85
3659
4.10
5691
4.37
3984
4.29
2683
4
1.05
3545
0.67
4351
0.96
507
0.94
1583
0.82
3587
1.37
8827
0.775
216
1.16
4241
1.06
2112
0.81
3799
0.84
6707
0.89
4427
Statement: the residents are open and hospitable
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
3
2.439024
2.439024
2.439024
Neutral
30
24.39024
24.39024
26.82927
Agree
53
43.08943
43.08943
69.9187
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
17
13.82114
13.82114
83.73984
20
16.26016
16.26016
100
123
100
100
Disagree
Total
Statement: Valkenburg has a lot of fun activities to offer
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
1
0.813008
0.819672
0.819672
Neutral
13
10.56911
10.65574
11.47541
Agree
67
54.47154
54.91803
66.39344
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
40
32.52033
32.78689
99.18033
1
0.813008
0.819672
100
122
99.18699
100
1
0.813008
123
100
Disagree
Total
Missing
Total
Cumulative
Percent
System
111
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Statement: Valkenburg is a romantic city
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
1
0.813008
0.813008
0.813008
Disagree
11
8.943089
8.943089
9.756098
Neutral
33
26.82927
26.82927
36.58537
Agree
50
40.65041
40.65041
77.23577
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
26
21.13821
21.13821
98.37398
2
1.626016
1.626016
100
123
100
100
Completely disagree
Total
Statement: Valkenburg is a fresh and lively city
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Completely disagree
2
1.626016
1.626016
1.626016
Disagree
8
6.504065
6.504065
8.130081
Neutral
31
25.20325
25.20325
33.33333
Agree
63
51.21951
51.21951
84.55285
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
14
11.38211
11.38211
95.93496
5
4.065041
4.065041
100
123
100
100
Total
Statement: The city centre is fun and cosy
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
5
4.065041
4.098361
4.098361
Neutral
10
8.130081
8.196721
12.29508
Agree
58
47.15447
47.54098
59.83607
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
45
36.58537
36.88525
96.72131
4
3.252033
3.278689
100
122
99.18699
100
1
0.813008
123
100
Disagree
Total
Missing
Cumulative
Percent
System
Total
Statement: There are enough parking possibilities in Valkenburg
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
4
3.252033
3.278689
3.278689
Disagree
18
14.63415
14.7541
18.03279
Neutral
28
22.76423
22.95082
40.98361
Agree
35
28.45528
28.68852
69.67213
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
17
13.82114
13.93443
83.60656
20
16.26016
16.39344
100
122
99.18699
100
Completely disagree
Total
112
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Missing
1
System
0.813008
123
100
Total
Statement: Valkenburg is a perfect begin spot to discover the surroundings
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
3
2.439024
2.439024
2.439024
Neutral
15
12.19512
12.19512
14.63415
Agree
63
51.21951
51.21951
65.85366
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
39
31.70732
31.70732
97.56098
3
2.439024
2.439024
100
123
100
100
Disagree
Total
Statement: Valkenburg has a good price/ quality ratio
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
9
7.317073
7.317073
7.317073
Neutral
47
38.21138
38.21138
45.52846
Agree
39
31.70732
31.70732
77.23577
9
7.317073
7.317073
84.55285
19
15.44715
15.44715
100
Disagree
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
123
100
100
Total
Statement: Directions to the centre and activities are good
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Completely disagree
2
1.626016
1.626016
1.626016
Disagree
4
3.252033
3.252033
4.878049
Neutral
23
18.69919
18.69919
23.57724
Agree
60
48.78049
48.78049
72.35772
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
18
14.63415
14.63415
86.99187
16
13.00813
13.00813
100
123
100
100
Total
Statement: Information is easily and readily available
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Neutral
15
12.19512
12.19512
12.19512
Agree
58
47.15447
47.15447
59.34959
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
39
31.70732
31.70732
91.05691
11
8.943089
8.943089
100
123
100
100
Total
Statement: I feel safe in Valkenburg
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Disagree
Neutral
Cumulative
Percent
2
1.626016
1.626016
1.626016
17
13.82114
13.82114
15.44715
113
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Agree
55
44.71545
44.71545
60.1626
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
41
33.33333
33.33333
93.49593
8
6.504065
6.504065
100
123
100
100
Total
Statement: Valkenburg is a green and clean city
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
2
1.626016
1.652893
1.652893
Neutral
35
28.45528
28.92562
30.57851
Agree
52
42.27642
42.97521
73.55372
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
25
20.3252
20.66116
94.21488
7
5.691057
5.785124
100
121
98.37398
100
2
1.626016
123
100
Disagree
Total
Missing
Cumulative
Percent
System
Total
Statements: I come to Valkenburg ...
Statemen
t: I come
to
Valkenbu
rg for
Wellness
&
Healthcar
e
Statemen
t: I come
to
Valkenbu
rg for the
Holland
Casino
Statemen
t: I come
to
Valkenbu
rg for the
events
Statemen
t: I come
to
Valkenbu
rg to
enjoy and
relax
myself
Statemen
t: I come
to
Valkenbu
rg to hike
or cycle
Statemen
t: I come
to
Valkenbu
rg to
shop
Statemen
t: I come
to
Valkenbu
rg for the
history
123
123
123
122
123
122
123
N Valid
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
2.520325
2.04878
3.292683
3.598361
3.300813
2.622951
2.813008
1.467403
1.366182
1.395142
1.132976
1.442533
1.20829
1.168925
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Statement: I come to Valkenburg for Wellness & Healthcare
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Completely disagree
34
27.64228
27.64228
27.64228
Disagree
45
36.58537
36.58537
64.22764
Neutral
13
10.56911
10.56911
74.79675
Agree
13
10.56911
10.56911
85.36585
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
13
10.56911
10.56911
95.93496
5
4.065041
4.065041
100
123
100
100
Total
114
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Statement: I come to Valkenburg for the Holland Casino
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Completely disagree
53
43.08943
43.08943
43.08943
Disagree
45
36.58537
36.58537
79.6748
Neutral
9
7.317073
7.317073
86.99187
Agree
4
3.252033
3.252033
90.2439
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
6
4.878049
4.878049
95.12195
6
4.878049
4.878049
100
123
100
100
Total
Statement: I come to Valkenburg for the events
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Completely disagree
18
14.63415
14.63415
14.63415
Disagree
20
16.26016
16.26016
30.89431
Neutral
19
15.44715
15.44715
46.34146
Agree
46
37.39837
37.39837
83.73984
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
14
11.38211
11.38211
95.12195
6
4.878049
4.878049
100
123
100
100
Total
Statement: I come to Valkenburg to enjoy and relax myself
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
5
4.065041
4.098361
4.098361
Disagree
18
14.63415
14.7541
18.85246
Neutral
26
21.13821
21.31148
40.16393
Agree
47
38.21138
38.52459
78.68852
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
24
19.5122
19.67213
98.36066
2
1.626016
1.639344
100
122
99.18699
100
1
0.813008
123
100
Completely disagree
Total
Missing
System
Total
Statement: I come to Valkenburg to hike or cycle
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Completely disagree
18
14.63415
14.63415
14.63415
Disagree
20
16.26016
16.26016
30.89431
Neutral
27
21.95122
21.95122
52.84553
Agree
28
22.76423
22.76423
75.60976
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
25
20.3252
20.3252
95.93496
5
4.065041
4.065041
100
115
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
123
Total
100
100
Statement: I come to Valkenburg to shop
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Completely disagree
21
17.07317
17.21311
17.21311
Disagree
45
36.58537
36.88525
54.09836
Neutral
25
20.3252
20.4918
74.59016
Agree
23
18.69919
18.85246
93.44262
6
4.878049
4.918033
98.36066
2
1.626016
1.639344
100
122
99.18699
100
1
0.813008
123
100
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
Total
Missing
System
Total
Statement: I come to Valkenburg for the history
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Completely disagree
17
13.82114
13.82114
13.82114
Disagree
36
29.26829
29.26829
43.08943
Neutral
31
25.20325
25.20325
68.29268
Agree
33
26.82927
26.82927
95.12195
4
3.252033
3.252033
98.37398
2
1.626016
1.626016
100
123
100
100
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
Total
Statements: two statements about the future of Valkenburg
N
Statement:
The tourism
industry in
Valkenburg is
professionally
managed
Statement:
Valkenburg
is in need
for renewal
122
123
Valid
1
0
Mean
4.155738
3.845528
Std. Deviation
1.004292
1.180667
Missing
Statement: The tourism industry in Valkenburg is professionally managed
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Completely disagree
1
0.813008
0.819672
0.819672
Disagree
5
4.065041
4.098361
4.918033
116
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Neutral
18
14.63415
14.7541
19.67213
Agree
62
50.4065
50.81967
70.4918
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
22
17.88618
18.03279
88.52459
14
11.38211
11.47541
100
122
99.18699
100
1
0.813008
123
100
Total
Missing
System
Total
Statement: Valkenburg is in need for renewal
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
1
0.813008
0.813008
0.813008
Disagree
13
10.56911
10.56911
11.38211
Neutral
37
30.0813
30.0813
41.46341
Agree
39
31.70732
31.70732
73.17073
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
19
15.44715
15.44715
88.61789
14
11.38211
11.38211
100
123
100
100
Completely disagree
Total
What grade would you give Valkenburg as a tourism destination?
N
123
Valid
0
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Frequency
Valid
7.373984
0.853137
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
5
4
3.252033
3.252033
3.252033
6
12
9.756098
9.756098
13.00813
7
47
38.21138
38.21138
51.21951
8
54
43.90244
43.90244
95.12195
6
4.878049
4.878049
100
123
100
100
9
Total
117
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
7.9.2 The residents
There were in total 215 respondents on the questionnaire for the residents.
Sex
N
213
Valid
2
Missing
Frequency
Valid
Missing
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Male
110
51.16279
51.64319
51.64319
Female
103
47.90698
48.35681
100
Total
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
System
Total
Birth year
N
215
Valid
0
Missing
Mean
Frequency
Valid
1960.051
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
1925
1
0.465116
0.465116
0.465116
1929
1
0.465116
0.465116
0.930233
1931
2
0.930233
0.930233
1.860465
1932
2
0.930233
0.930233
2.790698
1933
3
1.395349
1.395349
4.186047
1935
4
1.860465
1.860465
6.046512
1936
1
0.465116
0.465116
6.511628
1937
2
0.930233
0.930233
7.44186
1938
3
1.395349
1.395349
8.837209
1939
2
0.930233
0.930233
9.767442
1940
3
1.395349
1.395349
11.16279
1941
6
2.790698
2.790698
13.95349
1942
1
0.465116
0.465116
14.4186
1943
5
2.325581
2.325581
16.74419
1944
3
1.395349
1.395349
18.13953
1945
4
1.860465
1.860465
20
1946
7
3.255814
3.255814
23.25581
1947
8
3.72093
3.72093
26.97674
1948
4
1.860465
1.860465
28.83721
118
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
1949
6
2.790698
2.790698
31.62791
1950
3
1.395349
1.395349
33.02326
1951
1
0.465116
0.465116
33.48837
1952
5
2.325581
2.325581
35.81395
1953
5
2.325581
2.325581
38.13953
1954
2
0.930233
0.930233
39.06977
1955
3
1.395349
1.395349
40.46512
1956
3
1.395349
1.395349
41.86047
1957
5
2.325581
2.325581
44.18605
1958
9
4.186047
4.186047
48.37209
1959
5
2.325581
2.325581
50.69767
1960
7
3.255814
3.255814
53.95349
1961
5
2.325581
2.325581
56.27907
1962
6
2.790698
2.790698
59.06977
1963
7
3.255814
3.255814
62.32558
1964
5
2.325581
2.325581
64.65116
1965
2
0.930233
0.930233
65.5814
1966
2
0.930233
0.930233
66.51163
1967
1
0.465116
0.465116
66.97674
1968
5
2.325581
2.325581
69.30233
1969
3
1.395349
1.395349
70.69767
1970
7
3.255814
3.255814
73.95349
1971
5
2.325581
2.325581
76.27907
1972
7
3.255814
3.255814
79.53488
1973
2
0.930233
0.930233
80.46512
1974
2
0.930233
0.930233
81.39535
1975
2
0.930233
0.930233
82.32558
1976
3
1.395349
1.395349
83.72093
1977
4
1.860465
1.860465
85.5814
1979
2
0.930233
0.930233
86.51163
1981
2
0.930233
0.930233
87.44186
1982
3
1.395349
1.395349
88.83721
1983
1
0.465116
0.465116
89.30233
1985
1
0.465116
0.465116
89.76744
1987
2
0.930233
0.930233
90.69767
1988
2
0.930233
0.930233
91.62791
1989
1
0.465116
0.465116
92.09302
1990
4
1.860465
1.860465
93.95349
1991
3
1.395349
1.395349
95.34884
1992
2
0.930233
0.930233
96.27907
1993
3
1.395349
1.395349
97.67442
1994
5
2.325581
2.325581
100
Total
215
100
100
119
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
The distribution in age is relatively good. It is spread out over various ages, with only the under 30’s
being less represented. However the largest age class in Valkenburg is the elderly (55+).
Birth year (in classes)
N
215
Valid
0
Missing
Mean
Frequency
Valid
35.81395
35.81395
50
23.25581
23.25581
59.06977
44
20.46512
20.46512
79.53488
22
10.23256
10.23256
89.76744
after 1983
22
10.23256
10.23256
100
215
100
100
N
212
Valid
3
1.396226
Frequency
Total
Cumulative
Percent
35.81395
Mean
Missing
Valid
Percent
77
Missing
Valid
Percent
before 1952
between 19531962
between 19631972
between 19731982
Total
Postal code
1.35814
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
6301
164
76.27907
77.35849
77.35849
6305
15
6.976744
7.075472
84.43396
6325
31
14.4186
14.62264
99.0566
6361
1
0.465116
0.471698
99.5283
6392
1
0.465116
0.471698
100
Total
212
98.60465
100
3
1.395349
215
100
System
120
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Most respondents came from the postal code 6301, which is Valkenburg itself. The other postal
codes are from villages in the municipality. Due to the low percentages of respondents from those
areas, it is unfortunately not possible to draw conclusions based on the postal code.
Level of education
N
213
Valid
2
Missing
4.868545
Mean
Frequency
Valid
Missing
Percent
Valid
Percent
6
2.790698
2.816901
2.816901
LBO/VMBO
17
7.906977
7.981221
10.79812
MAVO
14
6.511628
6.57277
17.37089
MBO
50
23.25581
23.47418
40.84507
HAVO/VWO
28
13.02326
13.14554
53.99061
HBO
71
33.02326
33.33333
87.32394
WO
27
12.55814
12.67606
100
Total
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Lower
education
System
Total
Cumulative
Percent
Numbers of years lived in Valkenburg
N
215
Valid
0
Missing
Mean
Valid
3.762791
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Percent
3
1.395349
1.395349
1.395349
1-5 years
14
6.511628
6.511628
7.906977
5-10 years
More than 10
years
14
6.511628
6.511628
14.4186
184
85.5814
85.5814
100
215
100
100
Less than 1 year
Total
Cumulative
Percent
121
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Most respondents lived in Valkenburg for more than 10 years. Due to the relatively low amount of
respondents that have chosen other values than that, it is not possible to draw conclusions based on
this variable.
Working in the tourism sector
N
213
Valid
2
Missing
Mean
Frequency
Valid
Missing
Total
1.882629
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Yes
25
11.62791
11.73709
11.73709
No
188
87.44186
88.26291
100
Total
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
System
Almost all respondents did not work in the tourism sector. It is therefore not possible to draw
conclusions based on this variable.
122
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Expectations and Experiences with various aspects
Safety
N
Expectation
of aspect:
Safety
Experience
of aspect:
Safety
215
213
Valid
0
2
4.75814
3.657277
0.552916
0.990476
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Expectation of aspect: Safety
Frequency Percent
Valid
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Not important at all
1
0.465116
0.465116
0.465116
Neutral
6
2.790698
2.790698
3.255814
37
17.2093
17.2093
20.46512
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
170
79.06977
79.06977
99.53488
1
0.465116
0.465116
100
Total
215
100
100
Important
Experience of aspect: Safety
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
8
3.72093
3.755869
3.755869
Not good
17
7.906977
7.981221
11.73709
Neutral
53
24.65116
24.88263
36.61972
Good
98
45.5814
46.00939
82.62911
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
36
16.74419
16.90141
99.53052
1
0.465116
0.469484
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Not good at all
Total
Missing
Valid
Percent
System
Total
Parking
Expectation
of aspect:
Parking
N
Valid
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Experience
of aspect:
Parking
215
213
0
2
4.227906977
3.084507042
0.971155392
1.170548318
Expectation of aspect: Parking
123
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Frequency
Valid
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Not important at all
7
3.255813953
3.255814
3.255814
Not important
7
3.255813953
3.255814
6.511628
Neutral
17
7.906976744
7.906977
14.4186
Important
85
39.53488372
39.53488
53.95349
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
97
45.11627907
45.11628
99.06977
2
0.930232558
0.930233
100
215
100
100
Total
Experience of aspect: Parking
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
16
7.44186
7.511737
7.511737
57
26.51163
26.76056
34.2723
Neutral
60
27.90698
28.16901
62.44131
Good
58
26.97674
27.23005
89.67136
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
17
7.906977
7.981221
97.65258
5
2.325581
2.347418
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Not good at all
Not good
Total
Missing
Valid
Percent
System
Total
Nature
N
Expectation
of aspect:
Nature
Experience
of aspect:
Nature
215
213
0
2
4.688372
4.314554
0.61947
0.846538
Valid
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Expectation of aspect: Nature
Frequency
Valid
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Not important at all
1
0.465116
0.465116
0.465116
Neutral
8
3.72093
3.72093
4.186047
51
23.72093
23.72093
27.90698
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
151
70.23256
70.23256
98.13953
4
1.860465
1.860465
100
Total
215
100
100
Important
Experience of aspect: Nature
124
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Frequency
Valid
Percent
Valid
Percent
8
3.72093
3.755869
3.755869
Neutral
24
11.16279
11.26761
15.02347
Good
79
36.74419
37.0892
52.11268
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
97
45.11628
45.53991
97.65258
5
2.325581
2.347418
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Not good
Total
Missing
System
Total
Cumulative
Percent
Sport facilities
N
Expectation
of aspect:
Sportfacilities
Experience
of aspect:
Sportfacilities
215
213
0
2
4.176744
3.934272
0.873503
1.030387
Valid
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Expectation of aspect: Sport facilities
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Not important at all
3
1.395349
1.395349
1.395349
6
2.790698
2.790698
4.186047
Neutral
27
12.55814
12.55814
16.74419
Important
96
44.65116
44.65116
61.39535
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
80
37.2093
37.2093
98.60465
3
1.395349
1.395349
100
215
100
100
Not important
Total
Experience of aspect: Sport facilities
Frequency Percent
Valid
Missing
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
2
0.930233
0.938967
0.938967
Not good
17
7.906977
7.981221
8.920188
Neutral
46
21.39535
21.59624
30.51643
Good
87
40.46512
40.84507
71.3615
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
50
23.25581
23.47418
94.83568
11
5.116279
5.164319
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Not good at all
Total
Total
Cumulative
Percent
System
125
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Arts & Culture
N
Expectation
of aspect:
Arts&Culture
Experience
of aspect:
Arts&Culture
215
211
0
4
3.916279
3.57346
1.064493
1.013272
Valid
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Expectation of aspect: Arts&Culture
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
9
4.186047
4.186047
4.186047
Not important
10
4.651163
4.651163
8.837209
Neutral
44
20.46512
20.46512
29.30233
Important
82
38.13953
38.13953
67.44186
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
67
31.16279
31.16279
98.60465
3
1.395349
1.395349
100
215
100
100
Not important at all
Total
Experience of aspect: Arts&Culture
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
4
1.860465
1.895735
1.895735
Not good
16
7.44186
7.582938
9.478673
Neutral
91
42.32558
43.12796
52.60664
Good
64
29.76744
30.33175
82.93839
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
27
12.55814
12.79621
95.7346
9
4.186047
4.265403
100
211
98.13953
100
4
1.860465
215
100
Not good at all
Total
Missing
Valid
Percent
System
Total
Atmosphere in the city
N
Valid
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Expectation
of aspect:
Atmosphere
in the city
Experience
of aspect:
Atmosphere
in the city
214
213
1
2
4.504673
3.85446
0.703764
0.825559
126
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Expectation of aspect: Atmosphere in the city
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Not important at all
1
0.465116
0.46729
0.46729
Not important
3
1.395349
1.401869
1.869159
Neutral
9
4.186047
4.205607
6.074766
77
35.81395
35.98131
42.05607
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
122
56.74419
57.00935
99.06542
2
0.930233
0.934579
100
Total
214
99.53488
100
1
0.465116
215
100
Important
Missing
System
Total
Experience of aspect: Atmosphere in the city
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Not good at all
1
0.465116
0.469484
0.469484
Not good
9
4.186047
4.225352
4.694836
Neutral
Good
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
Total
Missing
Cumulative
Percent
System
Total
54
25.11628
25.35211
30.04695
108
50.23256
50.70423
80.75117
38
17.67442
17.84038
98.59155
3
1.395349
1.408451
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Atmosphere among residents
N
Expectation
of aspect:
Atmosphere
among
residents
Experience
of aspect:
Atmosphere
among
residents
213
213
Valid
Missing
2
2
4.492958
3.901408
Mean
Std.
0.641488
0.876662
Deviation
Expectation of aspect: Atmosphere among residents
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Neutral
16
7.44186
7.511737
7.511737
Important
77
35.81395
36.15023
43.66197
119
55.34884
55.86854
99.53052
1
0.465116
0.469484
100
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
127
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Total
Missing
System
Total
213
99.06977
2
0.930233
215
100
100
Experience of aspect: Atmosphere among residents
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Not good at all
2
0.930233
0.938967
0.938967
Not good
8
3.72093
3.755869
4.694836
53
24.65116
24.88263
29.57746
100
46.51163
46.94836
76.52582
46
21.39535
21.59624
98.12207
4
1.860465
1.877934
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Neutral
Good
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
Total
Missing
Cumulative
Percent
System
Total
Accessibility
N
Expectation
of aspect:
Accessibility
(roads)
Experience
of aspect:
Accessibility
(roads)
214
213
1
2
4.528037
3.262911
0.675986
1.114393
Valid
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Expectation of aspect: Accessibility (roads)
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Missing
Not important at all
1
0.465116
0.46729
0.46729
Not important
1
0.465116
0.46729
0.934579
Neutral
10
4.651163
4.672897
5.607477
Important
77
35.81395
35.98131
41.58879
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
122
56.74419
57.00935
98.59813
3
1.395349
1.401869
100
Total
214
99.53488
100
1
0.465116
215
100
System
Total
Experience of aspect: Accessibility (roads)
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
7
3.255814
3.286385
3.286385
Not good
57
26.51163
26.76056
30.04695
Neutral
52
24.18605
24.41315
54.46009
Good
70
32.55814
32.86385
87.32394
Not good at all
128
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
Total
Missing
System
Total
24
11.16279
11.26761
98.59155
3
1.395349
1.408451
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Public transport
N
Expectation
of aspect:
Public
Transport
Experience
of aspect:
Public
Transport
214
213
1
2
4.252336
3.85446
0.998529
1.178599
Valid
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Expectation of aspect: Public Transport
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Not important at all
6
2.790698
2.803738
2.803738
Not important
6
2.790698
2.803738
5.607477
Neutral
24
11.16279
11.21495
16.82243
Important
78
36.27907
36.4486
53.27103
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
92
42.7907
42.99065
96.26168
8
3.72093
3.738318
100
214
99.53488
100
1
0.465116
215
100
Total
Missing
System
Total
Experience of aspect: Public Transport
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Total
Cumulative
Percent
5
2.325581
2.347418
2.347418
Not good
23
10.69767
10.79812
13.14554
Neutral
49
22.7907
23.00469
36.15023
Good
74
34.4186
34.74178
70.89202
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
45
20.93023
21.12676
92.01878
17
7.906977
7.981221
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Not good at all
Total
Missing
Cumulative
Percent
System
129
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Balance between events/ rest in the city
Expectation
of aspect:
Balance
between
events/ rest
in the city
N
Valid
Missing
215
Experience
of aspect:
Balance
between
events/
rest in the
city
213
0
2
4.437209
3.375587
Mean
Std.
0.845279
1.111588
Deviation
Expectation of aspect: Balance between events/ rest in the city
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Not important at all
4
1.860465
1.860465
1.860465
Not important
2
0.930233
0.930233
2.790698
16
7.44186
7.44186
10.23256
Neutral
Important
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
71
33.02326
33.02326
43.25581
118
54.88372
54.88372
98.13953
4
1.860465
1.860465
100
215
100
100
Total
Experience of aspect: Balance between events/ rest in the city
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Not good at all
10
4.651163
4.694836
4.694836
Not good
37
17.2093
17.37089
22.06573
Neutral
65
30.23256
30.51643
52.58216
Good
68
31.62791
31.92488
84.50704
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
30
13.95349
14.08451
98.59155
3
1.395349
1.408451
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Total
Missing
Total
System
130
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Balance between tourism/ living area
N
Valid
Expectation
of aspect:
Balance
between
tourism/
residential
area
214
Experience
of aspect:
Balance
between
tourism/
residential
area
213
1
2
Missing
4.38785
3.671362
Mean
Std.
0.926421
1.057309
Deviation
Expectation of aspect: Balance between tourism/ residential area
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Not important at all
5
2.325581
2.336449
2.336449
Not important
2
0.930233
0.934579
3.271028
25
11.62791
11.68224
14.95327
Neutral
60
27.90698
28.03738
42.99065
Very important
I do not know/ No
opinion
117
54.4186
54.6729
97.66355
5
2.325581
2.336449
100
Total
214
99.53488
100
1
0.465116
215
100
Important
Missing
System
Total
Experience of aspect: Balance between tourism/ residential area
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
6
2.790698
2.816901
2.816901
Not good
21
9.767442
9.859155
12.67606
Neutral
61
28.37209
28.6385
41.31455
Good
79
36.74419
37.0892
78.40376
Very good
I do not know/ No
opinion
41
19.06977
19.24883
97.65258
5
2.325581
2.347418
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Not good at all
Total
Missing
Total
System
131
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Statements
Statem
ent:
Munici
pality
listens
to
opinion
residen
ts
Statem
ent:
There
are too
many
events
in
Valken
burg
Statem
ent:
The
city
centre
is cosy
and
fun
Statem
ent: I
am
proud
of
Valken
burg
Statem
ent: I
am
happy
to live
in
Valken
burg
Statem
ent:
The
tourism
industr
y is
import
ant for
Valken
burg
Statem
ent:
Valken
burg is
a good
destina
tion for
busine
ss
tourism
Statem
ent:
Wellne
ss
tourism
is the
future
for
Valken
burg
215
Statem
ent:
There
is a
good
balanc
e
betwe
en
touris
m/
reside
ntial
area
213
215
215
215
214
215
215
215
0
2.8093
02
2
3.6525
82
0
2.6976
74
0
3.7627
91
0
4.0232
56
1
4.2943
93
0
4.5441
86
0
3.4837
21
0
3.5581
4
1.2737
12
1.1123
05
1.2666
62
1.0113
89
0.9444
47
0.7885
72
0.6881
18
1.3836
38
1.3378
45
N Valid
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviatio
n
Statement: Municipality listens to opinion residents
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Completely disagree
30
13.95349
13.95349
13.95349
Disagree
62
28.83721
28.83721
42.7907
Neutral
73
33.95349
33.95349
76.74419
Agree
34
15.81395
15.81395
92.55814
1
0.465116
0.465116
93.02326
15
6.976744
6.976744
100
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
215
100
100
Total
Statement: There is a good balance between tourism/ residential area
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
7
3.255814
3.286385
3.286385
Disagree
27
12.55814
12.67606
15.96244
Neutral
52
24.18605
24.41315
40.37559
Agree
80
37.2093
37.55869
77.93427
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
41
19.06977
19.24883
97.1831
6
2.790698
2.816901
100
213
99.06977
100
2
0.930233
215
100
Completely disagree
Total
Missing
Total
System
132
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Statement: There are too many events in Valkenburg
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Completely disagree
43
20
20
20
Disagree
59
27.44186
27.44186
47.44186
Neutral
58
26.97674
26.97674
74.4186
Agree
31
14.4186
14.4186
88.83721
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
23
10.69767
10.69767
99.53488
1
0.465116
0.465116
100
215
100
100
Total
Statement: The city centre is cosy and fun
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
6
2.790698
2.790698
2.790698
Disagree
20
9.302326
9.302326
12.09302
Neutral
43
20
20
32.09302
Agree
98
45.5814
45.5814
77.67442
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
46
21.39535
21.39535
99.06977
2
0.930233
0.930233
100
215
100
100
Completely disagree
Total
Statement: I am proud of Valkenburg
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
2
0.930233
0.930233
0.930233
Disagree
10
4.651163
4.651163
5.581395
Neutral
49
22.7907
22.7907
28.37209
Agree
76
35.34884
35.34884
63.72093
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
76
35.34884
35.34884
99.06977
2
0.930233
0.930233
100
215
100
100
Completely disagree
Total
Statement: I am happy to live in Valkenburg
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid
Completely disagree
2
0.930233
0.934579
0.934579
Disagree
2
0.930233
0.934579
1.869159
Neutral
25
11.62791
11.68224
13.5514
Agree
88
40.93023
41.1215
54.6729
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
96
44.65116
44.85981
99.53271
1
0.465116
0.46729
100
214
99.53488
100
1
0.465116
215
100
Total
Missing
Total
Cumulative
Percent
System
133
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
Statement: The tourism industry is important for Valkenburg
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Completely disagree
2
0.930233
0.930233
0.930233
Disagree
1
0.465116
0.465116
1.395349
Neutral
8
3.72093
3.72093
5.116279
Agree
72
33.48837
33.48837
38.60465
131
60.93023
60.93023
99.53488
1
0.465116
0.465116
100
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
215
100
100
Total
Statement: Valkenburg is a good destination for business tourism
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Completely disagree
22
10.23256
10.23256
10.23256
Disagree
35
16.27907
16.27907
26.51163
Neutral
41
19.06977
19.06977
45.5814
Agree
62
28.83721
28.83721
74.4186
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
44
20.46512
20.46512
94.88372
11
5.116279
5.116279
100
215
100
100
Total
Statement: Wellness tourism is the future for Valkenburg
Frequency Percent
Valid
Cumulative
Percent
Percent
Valid
Completely disagree
20
9.302326
9.302326
9.302326
Disagree
27
12.55814
12.55814
21.86047
Neutral
50
23.25581
23.25581
45.11628
Agree
58
26.97674
26.97674
72.09302
Completely agree
I do not know/ No
opinion
51
23.72093
23.72093
95.81395
9
4.186047
4.186047
100
215
100
100
Total
134
The Image and Identity of Valkenburg – Bart Stevens, 2012
What grade would you give Valkenburg as a place to live?
N
210
Valid
5
Missing
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Frequency
Valid
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
2
0.930233
0.952381
0.952381
4
2
0.930233
0.952381
1.904762
5
5
2.325581
2.380952
4.285714
6
15
6.976744
7.142857
11.42857
7
60
27.90698
28.57143
40
8
111
51.62791
52.85714
92.85714
9
11
5.116279
5.238095
98.09524
100
Total
Total
1.03178
3
10
Missing
7.504762
System
4
1.860465
1.904762
210
97.67442
100
5
2.325581
215
100
135

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