The Network of the Sanctuaries of Our Lord in Poland

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The Network of the Sanctuaries of Our Lord in Poland
PRACE GEOGRAFICZNE, zeszyt 111
Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej UJ
Kraków 2003
Franciszek Mróz
THE NETWORK OF THE SANCTUARIES
OF OUR LORD IN POLAND
Abstract: In the paper a spatial differentiation of the Sanctuaries of Our Lord in Poland was
described. The aforementioned sanctuaries are the oldest pilgrimage centres in the country.
Nearly half of€them were founded in the 16th and 17th centuries. The centres in Kalwaria
Zebrzydowska and€Cracow–Łagiewniki are of international range and they are among the most
frequently visited pilgrimage centres in Europe and the sanctuary in Łagiewniki has been
declared the€world centre of the cult of the Divine Mercy.
Key words: Sanctuary /shrine of Our Lord Jesus, calvary, pilgrimages, spatial range of the sanctuary
influence
Introduction
The sanctuaries devoted to Jesus Christ called in the Polish literature
the€Sanctuaries of Our Lord1 are the oldest Christian religious cult centres. The first
shrines were built in the Holy Land in the places connected to the life, passion and death
of Jesus Christ (Jerusalem, Nazareth, Bethlehem, Mount Tabor, the Jordan River
and€the€Lake Genezareth).
Since the 4th century the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem built
in€the€place of the crucifixion of Christ and His commitment into the grave has been
the€most important aim of the Christian pilgrimages coming to Palestine. In the course
of time this sanctuary became a model for many architectonic copies in Europe. Together
with the Chapels of the Holy Sepulchre also the sanctuaries of the relics of the Passion
1
W. Zaleski states that sanctuaries of the Lord are places of a special worship of the Divine mysteries:
the Holy Trinity, Corpus Christi, the Holy Cross, the Transfiguration of Christ. See Zaleski W.,
(ed. by Łempiccy M. J.), 1988, Sanktuaria Polskie. Katalog encyklopedyczny miejsc szczególnej czci Osób
Trójcy Przenajświętszej, Matki Bożej i Świętych Pańskich, Wydawnictwo Salezjańskie, Warszawa, p. 7
288
PRACE GEOGRAFICZNE, ZESZYT 111
of Christ emerged (The Wood of the Holy Cross, the nails, the crown of thorns) as well as
the Eucharistic sanctuaries (e.g. Bolsena, Orvieto, Lanciano, Poznań) and the sanctuaries
with miraculous pictures of Christ. Since the 15th century the calvaries began to be built
in Europe (e.g. Cordoba, Lubeck, Bamberg). The biggest number of such centres
was€founded in the 16th−17 th centuries when the Passion cult developed again
(Bilska−Wodecka 1996). In the period of the counterreformation the cult of€the€miraculous
pictures of Christ and the Eucharistic cult developed as well and they were the answer
of the Catholic Church to the Protestant questioning the actual presence of Christ
in the€shape of bread and wine. In that time the first shrines of the Holy Infant Jesus were
founded (e.g. Altenhohenau, Beaune, Prague, Rome, Salzburg). In the 1990s due to
the€dynamic development of the cult of the Divine Mercy in the form revealed to sister
Faustyna, the Sanctuaries of the Divine Mercy were built all over Christianity.
The purpose of this article is to show spatial differentiation of the sanctuaries
of Our Lord in Poland. Those sanctuaries are 15% of over 500 pilgrimage centres
that have been registered in Poland.
The basic sources for the study of the contemporary network of sanctuaries of this
kind were the information booklets and diocese information booklets of the individual
dioceses in Poland in the years 1990−2002, field library research in the archives
of the€diocese and province curias.
The majority of pilgrimage and religious cult centres studies concerns Marian
sanctuaries and shrines connected to particular saints. The existing studies concerning
the sanctuaries of Our Lord deal with single centres or with a particular group of sanctuaries
and they are of more popular or monographic character. There are only a few works
on€the sanctuaries of Our Lord and they are as follows: J. Heuser (1948), K. Kolb (1980),
A. Kopiczko (2001), W. Łydka (1990), A. Motyka (2001), B. Neundorfer (1963)
and the€fragments of the book of M. L. Nolan and S. Nolan (1989).
Contemporary network of the shrines of Our Lord in Poland
In Poland there are at present 72 sanctuaries devoted to Christ2 (Fig. 1). A vast
majority of those places was built during the Middle Ages (12%)3 . The best known
– Święty Krzyż, Miechów, Mogiła, Elbląg, Głotowo, Lublin and Poznań – were built
in the period of the 12th−14th century. What is necessary to emphasise is the fact that
the€Sanctuary of the Relics of the Holy Cross in Święty Krzyż in the Świętokrzyskie
Mountains is considered the first national shrine of Poland. Also the centres in Miechów,
Lublin, Mogiła and Poznań are worth mentioning. The sanctuary in Miechów is the€oldest
sanctuary of the Lord in Poland and one of the only two (the other is in Przeworsk) active
sanctuaries of the Holy Sepulchre in Europe. The beginning of the sanctuary can be€dated
back to the second half of the 12th century when the Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre
2
Author’s data based on the diocese information booklets of the dioceses in Poland as well as
on the€data collected from the branch curias and field research.
3
The criteria for this classification were as follows: the beginning of the cult of miraculous picture,
relics or a chapel in a given centre or the date of the erection of the sanctuary.
THE NETWORK OF THE SANCTUARIES OF OUR LORD IN POLAND
289
Fig. 1. Sanctuaries of Our Lord according to the time of their development in Poland in 2003
Source: Own analysis.
290
PRACE GEOGRAFICZNE, ZESZYT 111
organised a religious cult centre with a copy of the Holy Sepulchre. The Corpus Christi
Church in Poznań was one of the biggest pilgrimage centres in the medieval Poland.
In the period of flourishment in the first half of the 15th century its range was similar
to€the range of the famous European pilgrimage places4 . The sanctuary of the Relics
of€the Holy Cross in Lublin together with the mentioned above centre in Święty Krzyż
was among the most important Holy Cross cult centres in the country. Since the beginning
of the 15th century pilgrimages from different parts of Poland have used to come
to€the€Lublin Relic5 .
Nearly half of the existing sanctuaries of the Lord were built in the period
of the€16th−17th centuries. In the period of the post–Trent reform a dynamic development
of the mass religiousness in Poland was observed. Similarly to the countries of the€Western
Europe the Passion cult developed in our country as well. The traces of that current can
still be found in the built then pilgrimage centres with miraculous pictures of the Man
of€Sorrows and of Crucified Christ (e.g. the pictures of the Suffering Christ in Alwernia,
Bielany k.Kęt, Ciężkowice, Czchów–Kozieniec, Paradyż, miraculous crucifixes
in€Frysztak, Kcynia, Kobylanka, Słupca and Warsaw). The aforementioned calvaries
were a new type of a Passion sanctuary. The first calvary in Poland was founded at
the€beginning of the 17th century by the Cracow voivode Mikołaj Zebrzydowski on the
Zebrzydowski Fields. Other calvaries followed – Pakość n/Notecią (1628), Wejherowo
(1649), Kalwaria Pacławska (1668), Góra Kalwaria (1670), Wambierzyce (1681) and on
Góra Świętej Anny (1709). Within the borders of the present–day Poland there are about
52 calvaries, 11 of which are sanctuaries of the Passion of Christ (Głotowo, Góra Świętej
Anny, Kalwaria Pacławska, Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Pakość n/Notecią, Piekary Śląskie,
Sadowie–Golgota, Serpelice, Wąsosz Górny, Wejherowo, Wiele).
In the period of the national servitude (1795–1918) there were ten sanctuaries
founded. The centre in Jodłowa6 is an interesting sanctuary in this group (at present
the€only sanctuary of the Holy Infant Jesus). Other interesting sanctuaries are as follows:
4
The development of such an important sanctuary (thanks to the relics of the Holy Eucharists
profaned in 1399) was stopped by the reformation and later by the annulment of the Carmelite
Convent in 1823. Wiesiołowski J., 1992, Funkcjonowanie poznańskiego kultu pątniczego w kościele
Bożego Ciała (koniec XV – pocz. XVII wieku) [in:] Wiesiołowski J. (ed.), Legenda Bożego Ciała, Kronika
Miasta Poznania 3−4, pp. 128−159; Trajdos M., 1992, Legenda Bożego Ciała u poznańskich karmelitów
i działalność klasztoru w I poł. XV wieku [in:] Wiesiołowski J. (ed.), Legenda Bożego Ciała, Kronika
Miasta Poznania 3−4, pp. 27−44.
5
The Relics of the Holy Cross were brought by prince Grzegorz in 1333 and given to the Dominicans.
According to the research conducted at the end of the 19th century the Lublin relic was the second
large Holy Cross relic in the world (transverse and longitudinal arms of the Cross were 31,1 cm long
and 2,2 cm thick, 8,1 cm wide, and the capacity of the relic was 964 cm3, unfortunately in 1991
the€splendid silver reliquiary was stolen. The Police despite the intense investigation never cought
the robbers and in 1992 the prosecuting magistrate discontinued the investigation).
6
The object of the cult is a figure of the Infant Jesus (a copy of a figure of the Infant Jesus in Prague).
The beginning of the cult of the Infant Jesus in this sanctuary can be dated back to the turn of
the€19th and 20th centuries and it was initiated by priest Ignacy Zięba who had received the figure
from the Carmelite Sisters in Przemyśl. Mleczko J., 1989, Jodłowa. Przeszłość i teraźniejszość, Jodłowa,
pp. 55−57
THE NETWORK OF THE SANCTUARIES OF OUR LORD IN POLAND
291
Kashube Passion Sanctuary in Wiele, the calvary of the Most Precious Blood in Ujście
nad Notecią, and most of all the sanctuary in Piekary Śląskie. This centre in the above
mentioned period became a Polish religious and patriotic centre of the Upper Silesia
(Jackowski 1997)7 .
After the Regaining of Independence in 1918 a revival of the pilgrimage
movement (stopped during the Partitions) took place. In the period between the world
wars only one sanctuary of the Lord was founded in Poland – the calvary in Wąsosz
Górny.
After the World War II the cult of the Divine Mercy developed. The cult began
in€the 1930s and the official approval of the cult took place on 15 April 1978 when
the€Holy Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith cancelled the Notification of 19598 .
In the 1990s the first sanctuaries of the Divine Mercy started to emerge (in chronological
order: Częstochowa, Cracow–Łagiewniki, Szczecin, Myślibórz, Ożarów Mazowiecki,
Łomża). After the canonisation of the Blessed sister Faustyna on 30 April 2000 and after
the announcement of the Divine Mercy Feast on the first Sunday after Easter other new
Divine Mercy sanctuaries were founded – in Płock, Białystok, Poznań, Gdańsk–Wrzeszcz,
Łódź, Kielce, Sosnowiec and Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. After 1945, 23 sanctuaries of the
Lord were built in Poland altogether (31% of the total number of sanctuaries) including
15 sanctuaries of the Divine Mercy, the Sanctuary of Jesus Merciful in Kalisz, The Holy
Cross sanctuary in Olecko, the€sanctuary of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Szczecin,
the€Sanctuary of the Precious Blood of Christ in Częstochowa, and the Passion sanctuaries
in Sadowie–Golgota and Serpelice.
In the spatial distribution of the sanctuaries of the Lord in Poland, similarly to all
the pilgrimage centres the Carpathian, Warmia and Wielkopolska and Kujawy regions
are clearly distinguished (Jackowski 2000). In the Carpathian region there are at present
over 130 pilgrimage centres (i.e. 15% of the total number of the Polish sanctuaries),
the€majority of which (over 80%) is connected to the Marian cult (Sołjan 1995).
In€the€group of the 13 sanctuaries of the Lord situated in this region the centres
in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Kalwaria Pacławska and Nowy Sącz play a leading role.
A considerably big number of the mentioned above pilgrimage centres and
especially the sanctuaries of the Passion of Christ are situated in the Warmia diocese.
The Passion cult is connected to the time of the Teutonic Knights (Kopiczko 2001).
The surviving churches under invocation of the Holy Cross and the Jerusalem chapels
among others the shrines in Braniewo and Międzylesie that are still the€Passion sanctuaries
are visible signs of this cult. In the Warmia diocese also the€Sanctuary of the Precious
7
The sanctuary in Piekary Śląskie is the main Marian sanctuary of the Katowice diocese. In the years
1887−1895 a calvary was buit in Piekary and since then the cult of the Passion has developed
as well. The main indulgence ceremonies take place both on the day of Our Lady of Piekary
(12 September), on St. Bartholomew’s day (12 September) and on the day of the Invention
of the Cross (14 September).
8
On 7 March 1959 the Congregation for Holy Office edited a Notification in which it forbade
the propagation of pictures and papers concerning the devotion to the Divine Mercy in the forms
proposed by sister Faustyna. Socha P., 2000, Rozwój kultu Bożego Miłosierdzia w Polsce i na świecie,
Peregrinus Cracoviensis 9, pp. 118−119
292
PRACE GEOGRAFICZNE, ZESZYT 111
Blood of Christ in Bisztynek is situated and the Eucharistic sanctuary in Głotowo.
In Głotowo a calvary was built in the second half of the 19th century and it is now called
the “Warmia Jerusalem”.
A big group of sanctuaries of the Lord is situated in the Wielkopolska and Kujawy
region. In the Poznań diocese four centres of this kind are recorded (two of them
are€in€Poznań alone – Shrine of Corpus Christi and of the Divine Mercy), two in the
Włocławek and Gniezno dioceses.
In the Eastern and Western Poland a considerably small number of the sanctuaries
of the Lord is situated. In the area of the Legnica, Zielona Góra–Gorzów, Koszalin
–Kołobrzeg, Siedlce and Zamość–Lubaczów dioceses the sanctuaries of the Lord do not
occur. Only one singular sanctuary devoted to Christ is located in each of the following
dioceses: Ełk (Olecko), Białystok (Białystok), Łomża (Łomża). The Szczecin–Kamień
diocese in the West of Poland is an exception and there are three sanctuaries of the Lord
located there (the sanctuary of the Divine Mercy in Myslibórz and the sanctuaries of
the€Holiest Heart of Jesus and of the Divine Mercy in Sczczecin). Yet what should be
emphasised is the fact that the aforementioned sanctuaries are new pilgrimage centres
founded during the last decade.
Spatial range of the influence of the sanctuaries
of the Lord in Poland
According to the generally accepted in the subject literature division (Jackowski,
Sołjan, Bilska−Wodecka 1999) where the spatial range of influence and the popularity
of€a pilgrimage centre are the criteria, all the sanctuaries have been classified in five
categories: sanctuaries of an international range, of a country range, supra−diocese
(supra−regional) range, diocese (regional) and local (decanate) range.
The centres that are among the most important pilgrimage places in the world
and€which influence goes beyond the borders of the country were considered centres
of€an international range; the centres with an influence range within the borders of Poland
and with a ministration activity on level of at least archdiocese were considered places
of a country range; the sanctuaries with an influence range going beyond the mother
diocese – centres of the supra–diocese (supra−regional) range; centres with an influence
limited to the diocese – the centres of a diocese (regional) range and the sanctuaries with
an influence limited to the borders of the decanate – centres of a local (decanate) range9 .
The centres in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Cracow–Lagiewniki and Góra Świętej
Anny are sanctuaries of an international range (Jackowski 2000) (Fig. 2).
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska called ‘the Polish Jerusalem’ is the oldest calvary
in€the€country and one of the oldest European calvaries (Bilska−Wodecka 2002). It is€also
9
The Codex of the Canon Law from 1992 lists the diocese, national and international sanctuaries.
To acquire the rank of a national centre a sanctuary must obtain the approval of the Conference
of the Episcopate; to be called international the approval of the Holy See is necessary. Kodeks
Prawa Kanonicznego, 1994, PALLOTINUM, Warszawa, kan. 1231; Sztafrowski E., 1986, Podręcznik
Prawa Kanonicznego, vol. 4, ATK, Warszawa, pp. 244−245
THE NETWORK OF THE SANCTUARIES OF OUR LORD IN POLAND
293
Fig. 2. Range of the influence of the sanctuaries of Our Lord in Poland in 2003
Source: Own analysis.
considered a second after Jasna Góra pilgrimage shrine in Poland and one of the most
important pilgrimage centres in the world, annually visited by over 1 million of people
(Jackowski, Sołjan 2002) (Fig. 3). Foreign pilgrims are about 2−3% of the total number
and they come most of all from Slovakia, Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Germany, Austria
and USA (Fig. 4). The biggest number of pilgrims come to Kalwaria Zebrzydowska
during the€main indulgence feasts: during the Holy Week (Palm Sunday, Holy
294
PRACE GEOGRAFICZNE, ZESZYT 111
Fig. 3. Pilgrimage movement in the chosen sanctuaries of Our Lord in Poland in 2002
Source: Pilgrimage books from the particular centres.
Wednesday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday; the celebrations are connected with
the€Passion Mystery Play – approximately 100 thousand people) and on 15 August for
the Feast of€the€Dormition of the Mother of God (approximately 150 thousand people).
On 1€December 1999 the monastery together with the pilgrimage park in Kalwaria
Zebrzydowska was enlisted in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The Sanctuary of the Divine Mercy in Łagiewniki is one of the best developing
pilgrimage centres in Poland. The picture / image of Merciful Jesus with an inscription:
Jesus I trust in You and the relics of St. Sister Faustyna Kowalska are the objects of€the€cult
(Fig. 5). The first pilgrimage groups started to visit Łagiewniki already in 1956 after
the€information process of Sister Faustyna (who died in the opinion of holiness) had
been started by the Archbishop Karol Wojtyła and after her remains had been moved
from the cemetery to the convent’s chapel. Because of that in 1968 the Congregation
addressed the Archbishop Curia in Cracow with a request for including the chapel in€the€list
of the sanctuaries. On 22 November 1968 Cardinal Karol Wojtyła placed the chapel
on€a€list of the Polish diocese sanctuaries. By a decree issued by Cardinal Franciszek
Macharski on 1 November 1992 an official name of the convent chapel was changed
into the Shrine of the Divine Mercy. On 17 August 2002 the Holy Father John Paul II
visited Łagiewniki for the second time. He consecrated the new basilica and announced
THE NETWORK OF THE SANCTUARIES OF OUR LORD IN POLAND
295
Fig. 4. Organized pilgrimages groups in the Shrine of Christ’s Passion and the Virgin Mary
in Kalwaria−Zebrzydowska in 2000
Source: Own analysis based on Pilgrimage Books.
the Łagiewniki sanctuary the world centre of the cult of the Divine Mercy. The main
indulgence celebrations take place during the Feast of the Divine Mercy and they
gather around 100 thousand people.
Góra Świętej Anny is the third pilgrimage centre of international range in the€group
of the Polish Sanctuaries of the Lord. In this sanctuary the worship of St. Ann is connected
with the cult of the Holy Virgin as well as with the Passion cult. For over 500 years
it€has€been the main pilgrimage place of the Upper Silesia and especially the Opole
Land. The sanctuary complex includes the basilica of St. Ann (Samotrzeć); the Lourdes
296
PRACE GEOGRAFICZNE, ZESZYT 111
Fig. 5. Organized pilgrimages groups in the Shrine of the Divine Mercy at Cracow−
Łagiewniki in the years 1992−2002
Source: Own analysis based on Pilgrimage Books.
Grotto, the Paradise Square and the calvary built in 1700−1709. The biggest number
of€pilgrims is recorded in the sanctuary during the great indulgences on the days
of€St.€Ann, the Assumption of Our Lady, the Feast of the Guardian Angels, and
the Invention of the Cross. In recent years approximately 350−400 thousand people
have visited the shrine annually. The biggest number of foreigners comes to the centre
from Germany, the Czech Republic and Austria.
The mentioned above sanctuaries in Piekary Śląskie and Święty Krzyż belong to
the group of the sanctuaries of a country spatial range of influence.
The main object of cult in the Święty Krzyż sanctuary i the 12 parts of the Wood
of€the Holy Cross. It is most probable that the Benedictine Fathers received the relics
from the king Władysław Łokietek (Derwich 1992). Soon after that a new name
of the€abbey appeared in the congregation documents: The Benedictine Abbey
of the Holy Cross, later abbreviated into the Holy Cross (Santa Crux). Until the middle
17th century it was one of the most important pilgrimage places in Poland and it flourished
during the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty. At present approximately 2000 thousand groups
THE NETWORK OF THE SANCTUARIES OF OUR LORD IN POLAND
297
Fig. 6. Organized tourist groups in the Święty Krzyż sanctuary in 2000
Source: Own analysis based on Pilgrimage Books.
visit the shrine annually that is in total around 150 thousand pilgrims. Most of the€registered
visitors came in 2000 (2755 groups totalled 120 668 people). 70€671 people came in
tourist groups, the rest came in pilgrim groups (41,4% of the total number of visitors).
Spatial range of the shrine’s influence covers whole territory of Poland. In the year
2000, pilgrim and tourist groups came mainly from mazowieckie, świętokrzyskie
298
PRACE GEOGRAFICZNE, ZESZYT 111
and€lubelskie provinces. Groups from lubuskie, warmińsko−mazurskie and zachodnio
−pomorskie provinces were very rare (Fig. 6).
In the group of the sanctuaries of the supra−diocese range the following centres
were included: Alwernia, Cmolas, Częstochowa (The Valley of the Divine Mercy –
Dolina Miłosierdzia), Głotowo, Kalwaria Pacławska, Cracow–Mogiła, Nowy Sącz, Pakość
and Wejherowo.
The centres in Cmolas and Nowy Sącz are the best known in Poland sanctuaries
of the Transfiguration of Christ10 ; the centres in Głotowo, Kalwaria Pacławska,
Wambierzyce and Wejherowo are within the most important (next to Kalwaria
Zebrzydowska and Góra Świętej Anny) sanctuaries of the Passion of Christ while
the shrine in Cracow–Mogiła is the biggest sanctuary where a miraculous crucifix
is worshipped.
The most numerous group of the Polish sanctuaries of Christ are the centres
of the€local (46%) and diocese (35%) range of spatial influence.
The majority of the described centres (58%) are located in the cities. This applies
especially to the centres of the diocese and supra–diocese range.
At present 23 sanctuaries of Christ (32%) are under the patronage of various convents
and congregations while 49 are under care of the diocese clergy. What is interesting
is the fact that the keepers of the biggest Polish sanctuaries of the Lord are members
of congregations (Góra Świętej Anny – The Reformati Franciscans, Kalwaria
Zebrzydowska – The Bernardine Franciscans, Cracow–Łagiewniki – the Congregation
of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy, Święty Krzyż – the Oblati Fathers).
Conclusions
The contemporary network of sanctuaries of Christ in Poland is a heritage
of the€ages long tradition created both by the shrines where relics were worshipped,
the miraculous images of Christ and by the calvaries – the copies of the Holy Sepulchre
and the Holy€Stairs.
The sanctuaries of Christ have always been present in the network of the pilgrimage
places in Poland. The majority of those shrines were built in the period of the post
–Trent reform and later in the 1990s. The youngest are the shrines of the Divine Mercy,
among which the sanctuary in Cracow–Łagiewniki has the widest (international) range.
In the near future this shrine will undoubtedly become one of the most important
pilgrimage places in the world.
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10
Other sanctuaries of the Transfiguration of Christ in Poland are located in Galew, Koło, Krużlowa
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THE NETWORK OF THE SANCTUARIES OF OUR LORD IN POLAND
299
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Mleczko J., 1989, Jodłowa. Przeszłość i teraźniejszość. Jodłowa, 55−57.
Motyka A., 2001, Sanktuaria Diecezji Rzeszowskiej, WSD, Rzeszów.
Neundorfer B., 1963, Zur Entstechung von Wallfahrten und Wallfahrtspatrozinien im mittelalterlichen
Bistum Bamberg, Bamberg.
Nolan M. L., Nolan S., 1989, Christian pilgrimage in modern Western Europe, Chapel Hill – Londyn:
The University of North Carolina Press.
Sanktuaria Diecezji Tarnowskiej, 1983, Tarnowskie Studia Teologiczne, t. 9.
Socha P., 2000, Rozwój kultu Bożego Miłosierdzia w Polsce i na świecie, Peregrinus Cracoviensis, 9,
118−119.
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Sołjan I., 1995, Kalwaria Zebrzydowska na tle innych ośrodków pielgrzymkowych w Karpatach Polskich,
Peregrinus Cracoviensis, 2, 77−91.
Trajdos M., 1992, Legenda Bożego Ciała u poznańskich karmelitów i działalność klasztoru w I poł.
XV w., [w:] J. Wiesiołowski (red.), Legenda Bożego Ciała, Kronika Miasta Poznania, 3−4, 27−44.
Wiesiołowski J., 1992, Funkcjonowanie poznańskiego kultu pątniczego w kościele Bożego Ciała
(kon. XV – pocz. XVII wieku), [w:] J. Wiesiołowski (red.), Legenda Bożego Ciała, Kronika
Miasta Poznania, 3–4, 128–159.
Zaleski W., (oprac. Łempiccy M. J.), 1988, Sanktuaria Polskie. Katalog encyklopedyczny miejsc szczególnej
czci Osób Trójcy Przenajświętszej, Matki Bożej i Świętych Pańskich, Wydawnictwo Salezjańskie,
Warszawa.
Sieć sanktuariów Pańskich w Polsce
Streszczenie
W opracowaniu przedstawiono przestrzenne zróżnicowanie sanktuariów Pańskich
w Polsce. Sanktuaria poświęcone Jezusowi Chrystusowi stanowią około 15% w ogólnej
liczbie ośrodków kultu religijnego w Polsce. Najstarsze z nich: Święty Krzyż, Miechów,
Mogiła, Elbląg, Głotowo, Lublin i Poznań sięgają swoimi początkami XIII−XIV w.
Sanktuarium Relikwii Drzewa Krzyża Świętego na Świętym Krzyżu w Górach
Świętokrzyskich uznaje się za pierwsze narodowe sanktuarium Polski.
Niemal połowa sanktuariów Pańskich w Polsce powstała w XVI−XVIII w. W tym
okresie rozwinął się w naszym kraju kult Męki Pańskiej i powstały nowe sanktuaria
pasyjne – kalwarie (Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Pakość n/Notecią, Wejherowo, Kalwaria
Pacławska, Góra Kalwaria, Wambierzyce, Góra Świętej Anny).
W okresie niewoli narodowej (1795–1918) powstało dziewięć sanktuariów
poświęconych Chrystusowi. Po zakończeniu II wojny światowe, rozwinął się w Polsce
kult Bożego Miłosierdzia. Jego początki sięgają lat 30. XX w., a dynamiczny rozwój
nastąpił po 1978 r., kiedy powstało 15 sanktuariów Bożego Miłosierdzia.
W rozmieszczeniu przestrzennym sanktuariów Pańskich w Polsce wyraźnie
wyróżnia się region Karpat, w których rejestruje się obecnie 13 ośrodków „Pańskich”,
a także rejon Warmiński (5 sanktuariów) i Wielkopolsko−Kujawski (8 sanktuariów).
Do sanktuariów o międzynarodowym zasięgu przestrzennym oddziaływania należą
ośrodki w Kalwarii Zebrzydowskiej, Krakowie–Łagiewnikach i na Górze Świętej Anny,
zaś o randze krajowej Piekary Śląskie i Święty Krzyż. Najliczniejszą grupę wśród polskich
sanktuariów Pańskich stanowią ośrodki o lokalnym (46%) i diecezjalnym (35) zasięgu
przestrzennym oddziaływania.
Niemal 60% sanktuariów Pańskich znajduje się w miastach – odnosi się to zwłaszcza
do ośrodków o zasięgu diecezjalnym i ponaddiecezjalnym. Ponad 30% sanktuariów jest
pod patronatem zakonów, zaś 49 pod patronatem kleru diecezjalnego.
THE NETWORK OF THE SANCTUARIES OF OUR LORD IN POLAND
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Najwięcej pielgrzymów przybywa w ciągu roku do sanktuarium w Kalwarii
Zebrzydowskiej (ponad 1 mln), Krakowie–Łagiewnikach (ponad 1mln), na Górze Świętej
Anny (400 tys.), oraz w Kalwarii Pacławskiej, Krakowie–Mogile i na Świętym Krzyżu
(150 tys.).
Sanktuarium Męki Pańskiej w Kalwarii Zebrzydowskiej i sanktuarium Miłosierdzia
Bożego Krakowie–Łagiewnikach należą do najważniejszych miejsc pielgrzymkowych
w Europie, a Łagiewniki zostały ogłoszone w 2002 r. przez Stolice Świętą za światowe
centrum kultu Bożego Miłosierdzia.
Franciszek Mróz
Institute of Geography and Spatial Management
Jagiellonian University
Cracow
Poland
Translated by Maria Skiba
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