POTENSI, PERMASALAHAN DAN PROSPEK TUMBUHAN OBAT

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POTENSI, PERMASALAHAN DAN PROSPEK TUMBUHAN OBAT
Agroforest-Biodiversity Conservation
Kampong in Indonesia
For the Indonesian Sovereignty
Paper for Regional Workshop on Sharing Traditional Forest-related
Knowledge for Ecosystem Services in ASEAN Countries,
24–25 March 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Oleh :
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
Agus Hikmat, Ellyn K. Damayanti, Siswoyo and Sahri M. Sinaga
Professor of Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation
Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)
Email : [email protected]; [email protected]
Agroforest-biodiversity Conservation Kampong in
Indonesia
for Sovereignty In Globalization
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
• Indonesian Asset
• Problems
CONCEPT OF CONSERVATION KAMPONG
LESSON LEARNED :
CONCLUSION
What Can Be Done
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
INTRODUCTION
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
INDONESIAN ASSET
PANCASILA
1. Belief in the divinity of God,
2. Just and civilized humanity,
3. The unity of Indonesia,
4. Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the
unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst
representatives
5. Social justice for all of the people of Indonesia
Definition :
Conservation Ala Indonesia
Sustainable
Utilization
Prerequisite :
Justice,
Civilized,
Sovereignty
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
Population Indonesia 2013
± 250 million (KKBN, 2013) ;
> 550 ethnics
Living in 78,198 villages, of them ±400,000 kampongs and
50% reside in and surrounding forest areas.
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
Forest Areas in INDONESIA (Baplan Kemhut, 2013)
Function
Conservation
28,8
Protected
26,8
Production
32,6
Limited
Production
24,4
Conversion
Total
17,9
130,68
Land Cover
Luas (Jt Ha)
Primer Forest
41,3
Secunder Forest
45,5
Cultivated Forest
2,8
Non Forest
Total
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Area
(million Ha)
41,0
130,68
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
FOREST AND HUMAN
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
“LOCAL COMMUNITY”
Forest
Plants , Animals
Nature Lanscape
Co-evolution
in Long Time Ago
10
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
INDONESIA
CENTER for ETHNOBIOLOGICAL
KNOWLEDGE
Bio-cultural-diversity
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
What are the main environmental issues
the ASEAN Region ?
Rice, pulp and paper, and palm oil are among other key trade
commodities, not only for Indonesia, but for most of countries in
the ASEAN region
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
•
•
•
•
•
Increase in Land Conversion (land use shifting)
Decrease chemical fertilizer/pesticides use
Haze pollution
Marine pollution
Lost of bio-cultur-diversity
Source : Dhewanthi, 2007
14
Globalisation, Mis-management, Disconnect and
Development Betrayal for the Local Peoples
Status of Forestry and Agriculture:
(Source : Mulvany, 2010)
Characterized by Disconnects, both in the developed and
developing world
•Disconnects between agriculture,
forest and the environment;
•Disconnects between consumers and
farmers or land (village) and cities;
•Disconnects between policies and
expectations.
•Disconnects between traditional knowledge and
modern knowledge.
Bio-cultural-diversity loss
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
OPPORTUNITIES
and
OBSTACLES
OPPORTUNITIES
Forest Food/Nutricy
Forest Pharmacy
>239 species of Food Plants
(Hidayat, et.al. 2010)
>2039 species of Medicinal Plants
(Zuhud, 2009)
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
H 2O
Food
Forest and Human Health
Medicine
Biocultural-diversity of Indonesia
Plants and animals play an important role in basic needs
for food, clothing, health and shelter
The environmental elements of Ethnics:
Social unity, demography, location, the natural, environment, origin /
legend, language, technology systems, livelihood systems, social
organization, knowledge systems, religious systems, art
Medicinal Plants and Food Species Diversity in Forests Kampong, Indonesia
No
1
2.
3.
4.
5.
6
8.
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Location
Kampong Sebangar, Bengkalis (Riau)
Kampong TN Wasur (Papua)
Kampong TN Bukit Tigapuluh (Jambi)
Kampong di Suaka Alam Lambusongo (P. Buton)
Kampong Dirun-Lumaknen, Belu NTT),
Kampong Dukuh, Garut (Jawa Barat)
Kampong Curahnongko TN. Meru Betiri, Jawa Timur
Kampong Aur Kuning, Kampar Kiri Hulu (Riau)
Kampong di CA Dolok Sibual-buali (Sum. Utara)
Kampong di TN. Gn. Merapi (Jawa Tengah)
Kampong Bukit Kelam, Sintang
Kampong Cipakem, Kuningan (Jawa Barat)
Kampong Senduro di TN. Bromo Tengger
Kampong di TWA Ruteng (NTT)
Kampong di Tahura K.G.P.A.A. Mangkunagoro I
Kampong Jeruk Manis TN. Rinjani (NTB)
Kampong Katikuwai TN. Laiwangi-Wanggameti (NTT)
Food
50
97
73
80
41
101
47
49
40
137
110
31
38
78
136
39
Medicine
76
125
317
169
69
150
237
98
67
47
51
92
30
69
63
156
34
19
20
21
22
Kampong Ndano TWA Madapangga (NTB)
Kampong Pauh Tinggi TN. Kerinci Seblat (Jambi)
Kampong Gn. Leutik , Bogor (West Java)
36
90
43
76
187
237
Yuliati (2013)
Stevani (2013)
Susan (2009)
Kampong Werabuan, Fak-fak (Papua Barat)
35
41
Woretma (2013)
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Source
La Medi et.al 1998 dalam Zuhud 2011
Inama et.al 2008 dalam Zuhud 2011
Fakhrozi et.al 2009 dalam Zuhud 2011
Hamidu et.al 2009 dalam Zuhud 2011
Atok et.al 2009 dalam Zuhud 2011
Hidayat et.al 2009 dalam Zuhud 2011
Zuhud et.al. 2000
Ernawati et.al 2009 dalam Zuhud 2011
Hasibuan et.al 2011 dalam Zuhud 2011
Anggana et.al 2011 dalam Zuhud 2011
Zuhud 2007. et.al
Rona 2011 dalam Zuhud 2011
Novitasari 2011 dalam Zuhud 2011
Iswandono 2007 dalam Zuhud 2011
Rahayu (2012)
Metananda (2012)
Rayhani (2012)
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
STRATEGY
To Develop :
Conservation Kampong in Indonesia
For the Indonesian Sovereignty in
Globalisation
Based on Local Wisdom-Knowledge
and to Develop with Modern-Knowledge
Appropriate technology
Human Involvement in Rain Forest
Genetic Resources Ecosystem
Human
Being
&Society
as a Whole
Welfare
Revolution
Today Settlement
Modes of Views
(Pra village):
(1) Settled
domestication
(2) Nomadic
(3) Composite
(4) Disversed
predation
amar 3/19/2007
coevolution
Forest
Genetic
Evolution
pastoralism
By ali m.a.rachman 16/03/06
(edited 17March 2007 for a Phyloshopy
in “Konservasi Tumbuhan Langka”lectures)
27
Raising Productivity through Food and Medicine Sovereignty
Food and Medicine
Provision
per unit Land/Water
A = industrial,
simplified,
high external
input
production
B = current
productivity levels
C
agroecological,
diverse,
C = low external
input
production
A
X
B
Empowering of
Kampong, based on
Pancasila Value :
Science and EcoTechnology
Low-----------------------DIVERSITY / RESILIENCE ---------------------- High
High-----------------------------------CARBON COST-------------------------------Low
High------------------------CORPORATE CONTROL-------------------------Low
Low--------------------------FOOD SOVEREIGNTY----------------------High
Low-------------------------------------PEOPLE ----------------------------------High
Source : Modified of Mulvany (2010)
Model of Biodiversity, Diet and Health in the Global Change
Population
growth
Industrialization
ENVIRONMENTAL DISTURBANCE
Urbanization
Climate change
Biodiversity loss
Inadequacy
DIETARY
FUNCTIONAL
DIVERSITY
Oxidative status
Malnutrition
Optimization
BIOCULTURAL
DIVERSITY
HEALTH CHALLENGES
Toxicants &
Xenobiotics
Immunity &
Infection
ADAPTATION
Source : Timothy Johns, 2003
To Connect Education System to Local Bio-culturdiversity
The school and university curricula, heve be designed not
uniform for all students ... and all side, all the diversity of
national identity must be attentive  to Sovereignty !
SIMPLE SOLUTIONS TO COMPLEX PROBLEMS
Management of Biodiversity Resources
 from “macro-national-global” to “micro-local”
Forest Village : 18.784  underdeveloped
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
31
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
What can be done
for New Government 2014
and
To Keep Mainstream of Globalization Effects
and to develop our bio-culture-diversity for
human welfare, side by side, location by
location, through “Kampong Conservation
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
“Kampoong Conservation Bioculture-diversity”
Indonesian people living in 73.798 villages, of them
400,000 kampongs and 50% reside in and surrounding
forest areas.
Faculty of Forestry,
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
Ervizal A.M. Zuhud
CONCLUSION
• Pre-requisite realization of food sovereignty, health
sovereignty and walfare of Indonesian nation are
kampong-local communities should be roled as a subject
(not object) of the national development.
• Each agroforest-biodiversity conservation kampong
should be supported and empowered in a planned
manner based on research which used sustainable
current eco-technology from the universites.
• Every agroforest-biodiversity kampong throughout
Indonesia should be came living laboratorium for each
university in Indonesia, based on the bio-geographical
location.
Forest Village : 18.784
Thank you

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