Rhagoletis cerasi - INRA Bordeaux

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Rhagoletis cerasi - INRA Bordeaux
RHAGOLETIS CERASI (L.) IN
WESTERN SICILY: PRESENCE,
DAMAGES AND CONTROL IN
ORGANIC CHERRY ORCHARDS
Manuela Palumbo Piccionello, Virgilio Caleca, Matteo Maltese
DEMETRA Department, Entomology, Acarology and Zoology Section,
Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo, Italy.
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
Two already published papers:
• PALUMBO PICCIONELLO M., MALTESE M., CALECA V.
– 2011 - Dannosità e controllo di Rhagoletis cerasi (L.)
in ceraseti biologici della Sicilia occidentale. In:
Progetto per lo Sviluppo dell'Agricoltura Biologica in
Sicilia. Palermo, 28-9-2011: 229-238.
• PALUMBO PICCIONELLO M., CALECA V. – 2012 Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western
Sicily: presence, damages and control in organic cherry
orchards. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 74:147-155.
Rhagoletis cerasi (L.)
Cherry Fly
A problem for
late ripening cherry cultivar
in organic farming
Order: Diptera
Family: Tephritidae
Cherry orchards in Sicily (ISTAT, 2008)
• Few news about R. cerasi in
Eastern Sicily (Fimiani P. et al., 1978,
1979)
• No news about R. cerasi in Western
Sicily
AIMS OF THE RESEARCH
Evaluation of the incidence of R. cerasi in
organic cherry orchards in Western Sicily
through:
• survey on presence and population
dynamic of the dipteran
• assessment of
damage in cherries;
susceptibility of some late-ripening cultivar;
•
control tests with nets, pyrethrum and
spinosad
Cherry orchards monitored during the research
San Giuseppe Jato
Grisì
(2006-2011)
Palermo
Province
Contessa Entellina
140 ha
Chiusa Sclafani
Sciacca
Bivona
Agrigento
Province
Traditional cherry area (TRAD)
Few cherry orchards area (FEW)
Isolated cherry orchards (ISOL)
20 ha
Castrofilippo
Cherry orchards monitored during the research
Area
2006
Bivona
TRAD
Chiusa Sclafani 1
TRAD
X
Chiusa Sclafani 2
TRAD
X
Chiusa Sclafani 3
TRAD
Chiusa Sclafani 4
TRAD
San Giuseppe Jato 1
TRAD
San Giuseppe Jato 2
TRAD
Castrofilippo 1
FEW
Castrofilippo 2
FEW
Grisì
FEW
Contessa Entellina
ISOL
Sciacca
ISOL
TOTAL
X
X
2007 2008 2009 2010
2011
X
1
X
X
3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2
X
X
X
6
X
X
X
3
X
3
1
X
3
X
X
2
X
5
6
8
6
2
X
X
TOTAL
1
4
6
4
33
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Monitoring (weekly controls)
from mid- April to the end of July
by Rebell traps (3 per cherry orchard)
Sex ratio ♂♂/♀♀
in yellow traps
Control tests with nets, pyrethrum and spinosad
Mesh 1 x 2 mm
Control tests with nets, pyrethrum and spinosad
3 treatments (1 per week) by:
Pyrethrum (Biopiren plus 160
ml/hl);
Spinosad (Laser 30 ml/hl).
Sampling on cherries
1.
(at commercial harvesting: mid- May – June):
100 fruits/ week/ orchard.
Sampling on cherries
1.
2.
(at commercial harvesting: mid- May – June):
100 fruits/ week/ orchard.
Observation under the stereomicroscope
RESULTS
Average Rhagoletis cerasi captures in three different kinds
of cherry orchards areas (from 2006 to 2011)
R.cerasi captures per trap per week
25
20
15
10
Intervention threshold
5
0
22 Apr 29 Apr 6 May 13 May 20 May 27 May 3 Jun 10 Jun 17 Jun 24 Jun 1 Jul
Traditional areas
Few cherry orchards area
8 Jul
15 Jul
Isolated cherry orchards
Rhagoletis cerasi captures in traditional cherry orchards
areas in five different years (from 2006 to 2011)
R.cerasi captures per trap per week
60
2006
50
2007
2008
40
2009
30
2010
2011
20
10
Intervention threshold
0
29 Apr
6 May
13 May 20 May 27 May
3 Jun
10 Jun
17 Jun
24 Jun
1 Jul
8 Jul
15 Jul
Average Rhagoletis cerasi captures of males and females in Rebell
traps in cherry orchards in four different years (from 2007 to 2010)
16
14
Captures/ traps/ week
12
10
8
6
males
4
females
2
0
22 Apr
29 Apr
6 May
13 May
20 May
27 May
3 Jun
10 Jun
17 Jun
24 Jun
1 Jul
8 Jul
15 Jul
• Sex ratio ♂♂/♀♀= average 1/0.5 (from 1/0.3 to 1/1.9)
• (1/1 in Campania, Italy, Fimiani et al. 1981; 1/0.5 in
Hungary,Tuba 2009)
Trend of Rhagoletis cerasi males and females captures in Rebell traps
in five different years (from 2007 to 2011)
22 Apr
29 Apr
6 May
13 May
20 May
27 May
3 Jun
10 Jun
17 Jun
24 Jun
1 Jul
8 Jul
35
Highest captures→
Captures/ traps/ week
30
25
♀'10
♀'09 ♀'07 ♂'10
♀'08 ♀’11 ♂’11
♂'09 ♂'07-08
males 2007
males 2008
males 2009
20
males 2010
females 2007
15
females 2008
females 2009
10
5
0
females 2010
15 Jul
Forecasting the first adult emergence by
daily soil temperature or
weekly mean air temperature
GDD for adult
emergence
100
Daily soil temperature
80
Weekly mean air temperature
60
Weekly adult captures
in three cherry orchards
40
20
Intervention threshold (5 flies
Sogliaweek)
d'intervento sulle catture
per
0
11-mar
26-mar
Chiusa Sclafani (campo 1)
10-apr
25-apr
10-mag
Chiusa Sclafani (campo 2)
25-mag
9-giu
24-giu
9-lug
Chiusa Sclafani (campo 3)
Average Rhagoletis cerasi infestation in traditional cherry
orchards area in 5 years (from 2006 to 2011)
35
2006
% infestation on cherries
30
2007
25
20
15
2008
2009
2010
2011
10
5
Damage
threshold
0
20 May
27 May
3 Jun
10 Jun
17 Jun
24 Jun
Average Rhagoletis cerasi captures and infestation in three
different types of cherry orchards areas (from 2006 to 2011)
30
25
20
20
15
15
10
10
Intervention threshold
5
5
Damage threshold
0
0
22 Apr 29 Apr 6 May 13 May 20 May 27 May 3 Jun
Infestation traditional areas
Traditional areas
Isolated cherry orchards
10 Jun 17 Jun 24 Jun
1 Jul
8 Jul
15 Jul
Infestation few cherry orchards area
Few cherry orchards area
% infestation on cherries
R. cerasi captures per trap per week
25
Correlation captures vs. infestation
Scatterplot (Max. captures of the year vs Max. infestation level of the year)
100
Damage threshold
(4% infested cherries)
Max. captures of the year (caught flies per trap per week)
120
80
60
In 16 cases (out of 26)
(low/high) captures agree
with the (low/high) infestation
40
20
Intervention threshold
(5 captures per trap per week)
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Max. infestation level of the year (% infested cherries)
60
70
Sterile punctures of Rhagoletis cerasi on cherries in 6 years
(2006-2011)
100
% sterile punctures on cherries
2006
90
2007
80
2008
70
2009
2010
60
2011
50
40
30
20
10
0
14-mag
19-mag
26-mag
5-giu
12-giu
19-giu
24-giu
Susceptibility late ripening cherry cultivars in
2008
Cappuccia di
Chiusa Sclafani
Mora di Vignola
Moscatella
di Chiusa Sclafani
Susceptibility of analyzed cultivar linked to
the ripening period and not to a different
attractant power of cultivars
Control test in San Giuseppe Jato in 2009
Vertical bars show 95% confidence intervals
0.10
Untreated
Net
Pyrethrum
Spinosad
0.08
Attacks per cherry
0.06
n.s.
0.04
0.02
0.00
-0.02
-0.04
-0.06
10Jun09
18Jun09
29Jun09
Control tests in San Giuseppe Jato in 2010
Vertical bars show 95% confidence intervals
0.14
0.12
0.10
Untreated ab
Net
b
Pyrethrum a
Attacks on cherry
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00
-0.02
-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
26May10
31May10
7Jun10
Control tests in Chiusa Sclafani in 2010
Vertical bars show 95% confidence intervals
0.07
Untreated
Net
Pyrethrum
0.06
0.05
n.s.
Attacks per cherry
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
-0.01
-0.02
-0.03
-0.04
24May10
1Jun10
8Jun10
Control tests in Chiusa Sclafani in 2011
Vertical bars show 95% confidence intervals
0.05
R. cerasi attacks per cherry
0.04
Untreated
Net
Pyrethrum
n.s.
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
-0.01
26May11
03Jun11
08Jun11
Control tests in San Giuseppe Jato in 2011
Vertical bars show 95% confidence intervals
(Repeated measurements ANOVA)
0.25
R. cerasi attacks per cherry
0.20
Untreated 0.06 a
Pyrethrum 0.03 b
Net
0.00 c
a''
a''
0.15
a'
0.10
a
0.05
b'
b''
0.00
-0.05
26May11
03Jun11
10Jun11
21Jun11
CONCLUSIONS
• Rhagoletis cerasi recorded in all
sampled orchards, except in the two
isolated and new ones.
• Peaks of R. cerasi flies in the last ten
days of May.
• Sex ratio of adults shows more males
than females (1:0.5).
CONCLUSIONS
• Not a high correlation between adults
captures in traps and infestation in
cherries.
• Low damages by R. cerasi in Western
Sicily.
• Until 25 May infestation under the
damage threshold in all cultivar.
CONCLUSIONS
• Sterile punctures, here quantified for the
first time, recorded in all period of fruit
samplings.
• Pyrethrum lowered cherry fly infestation
only in one case; the net was the best
tool that reduced the infestation.
AKNOWLEGEMENTS
• Farmers: Bono, Brucculeri, Fanara, Lucia, Lupo,
Motisi, Perricone, Traina.
• Collaborators (students): A. Blanda, G. Catania, E.
Lucia, G. Polizzi, G. Puccio, V. Russo, B. Vitrano.
• Antonino Raimondo and Antonino Abbate for
contacts and helpfulness.
Thanks for your
attention