A Human Comedy - Judith Wechsler

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A Human Comedy - Judith Wechsler
Judith Wechsler
AHTJMAN COMEDY
Phvsiognom\:and Caricature
in I gth Century Paris
Foreu,ordbl RichardSennett
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Contents
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Library
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Cataloging
in Publication
Foren'ordbr.'RichardSennert 7
Prefaceand acknon'ledgments r r
BcLr lr'
Introduction r3
One Parisianpanorama:codesand
classifications2()
Data
ttl4o\\'c, hsler. Judirh
A hunran comecll
Tu,o Deburar-r
and the Th6AtredesFunambules.
T h e I i t e r a r \ m a r i o n e t r c s+ 2
Biblioqraplrr : p.
I n r i u c f r - si n c i e s .
S o e i a L l i l t a r t c lc u s t o n l '
L Piri. trancc
(.iaric'attrre.arlcl fart{)ons :' l'lris -!-ralrce
tion
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Gestute
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Three Caricature:ne\\-spapers
and politics 66
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Sr,cial lilt and custon'
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F i r e H o n o r e D a u m i e r :s t r a t e g \ .
and stvle
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Epilogue r 7+
8:-;oti1;
'\'\(lR:
Notes r77
Selectedbibliograph\' 2or
Index 2oj
a
5
Prefaceand acknowledgments
L t . ; E n J ' a n t :d u p a r a d i s . - \ I a r c c l f l a r n c ' s l i l r r r o l r g 1 . 1 . m a d e a n i r r c v e r s i b l c
i n r p l c s s i o no n r r r c a ( t l t c a q c o l f t ) u r { c c n .J l s r c r n i a n t i cp a r t i a l i t v h a s n t ' t
l r - c a k e n e di t s l c r r c ea s a n e r e m p l a r t r v o r k o l l c c r t r : r t i o n . I h a v e l c a r n c d
s i n t ; c h o r r r n t i c h o 1 - i t sl r . r i c i s m c a m t ' d i r e c t l r f i r r t n t ] r t ' p a s s i o n a t e r t ' s e a r c l . r
'l'hc
d e l i c a c r a n d i l , . s u t ' a t t c co f
of its an drrector. Alexander J'rauncr.
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Jean-Louis Barrault's
D e l ; u r a u . a n d t l r c r : x u l - r t ' r a n tl b r c c o f t h t - r v o r i d a r o u r t d h i m . u ' e r e u n l b l g t : t t a b J e .S o m e s e v e n t ' e a r : l a t c r . n ' h c r t I b t r c a n t ea p c r l b r r n i n g n r i n r e
a n c la s t u d t - n to 1 ' E t i c n n eI ) e c t o u r t h c ; h a d p l a r - c dt h t ' l a t h c r o 1 ' D e b u r a u
in the filrn . I canre to renlize the disciplinc necessarl fbr articul:rte
c x p r ( s s i u n : r n d t l r c f i e c d o m o f ' p t r l i l r m a n e e . . \ q a i n . s e \ . c n \ c z r r sp : { i s t d
a n d I h a d b t : c o r r r ea s t u d e n t o l : r r t h i s t o r r . . [ ' o r t n r o r t n d i v e r s i o r t ,u ] t i l t '
l ' r i t i n g r n r . d i s s c r t a t i o n I. l r e g a n J o o k i n ga t l h e \ \ . o r ko 1 ' H o n o r t lD a u n r i e r .
a n c l r r ' a s s t r u c k b r t h c p h v s i r ; g n o n r r ' . b e r i r i n q -a r t d g t ' s r u r e o l ' h i s f i g u r c s
a r . r dt l . r e i rr e s e m b l a n c e t o t h c l b r m - co l ' m o r c r n c n t I h a d I e a r n e d a s a n r i m c .
I b c g a n e r p l o l i n q t h c l c l a t i r i n s h i p si . r t n r e c t .ct : t t ' i c a t u r t ' a n d : n i m e - a n c l
o v r r t h c ' r ' c a r st h e s u l ; j c c tg r e r r : u r d t h e p r e s . I ) t s t u d v d c v e l o p c d .
\ \ ' a l t c r B e n j a n r i n h a s b e e r r a n r o d e l t h r o t r g l t o t r t .H i s P a r i s : C a l u l a lo f
the tgth Cntur_t and Charlcs Baudelolrr; -l l,r'ric Poet in tfu Era oJ H|gh
C a p i l a l i J nat r e t h c m o s t p r o l b u r r c la n d p c r c e p t i v e s t u d i e so f t h c p e r i o c l , a n d
h i s p o n c r l i r l r c c c p t i v c n r : s lso ( \ ' c r v k i n d o 1 - e v i d e l r ctes a m o d c l t o h i s t o r r '
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I a m d t ' e p l v i n d e b t e d t o c c l t a i n l i i c n d s a n d r n e n t o r s . l ' h c l r r : t u r e so i
P r o f c s s o r ] I c l c r S c l r a p i r o a t C l o l u m l ) i a L - r . r i v c r s i t r 'l i o n r r g 6 3 t o r 9 6 5
: p a r k e d l r \ i r r t (r ' ( ' \ Li r - rn i n c t e e n t h - a L ' l r t u fF\ l r ' r r c l rl r r t a n d f i r ' : t a l e l t t ' r l r r r t :
t o t h c m o t i f o f l h c - s p s c t a t o r 'O
. u r t : o r r v c l s a t i o n so v e r t h e v c a r s h e l p e d r n c
h l n c t h c i 6 l 6 n -psl e s e n t e di n t h i r i t r r d \ . . J (a r 1A i l l r r l r n a r .C l o r l s ( ' r v i r t c u rn- -(
( l h e l ' e m c r i t u so i t h e C l a b i n e td . s E s l a r n [ ) c a
s t t h e B i b l i o t h d q u c\ a t i o n a i e .
c o n f i r m c d m v i d c a s o l t h c p a r z r l l c l i s r no l ' D c b u l a u a r r d D a u m i e l a n d
c n c o r t r a g e dn t c i n l h c i r r i t i a l s t a q e so f ' r n v r c s t - a r c l )s. u e g e s t i n ga n u n r b t r
of profitablc leads and unveiling thc m\sterie:jof the Iibran's great
holdings.
ProfcssorsLinda \ochlin and Rosalind Krauss read palrs ol' the
m a n u s c r i p ta n d o l l i r c d l i c l p { r r l s u g g e s t i o ucso n c c : ' nj n e p l o c c d r : r e .c ( ) n t e n l
II
arc and arknou'l.edgnunlt
a n < ls t n t c r u r e . T h c i r i n s i q h t s d e e p c n c d m v t h i n k i n g o n a n u m b e r o f i s s u c s .
I cannot expressmV gratitude sufficientl\ toJehane Burns who did the
translationsfrom the French aDd saq,the manuscript through everv stage
o f i t s c l e v e l o p m e n t .o f f e r i n g u n s t i n r i l l g a i d s h e i s a t r u c a c c o m p l i c e i n t h i s
e n t e r p r i s c . i \ ' i t h o r , h c r t h t : b o ' k u ' o u l d n o t h a v c r e a c h ed i t s p r e s e n t f o r m .
B e n s < - r tRr o r v c l l S n v d c r . m v h u s b a n d . h a s b e e n a s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t '
aclvice and cncouragemcnt: he read draft after drafr acutelv and un-
Introduction
tiringlr. A. \\'illiam \Ienzin h:rshelped spring traps llv father' Nahum
N Clatze., has bcen a modcl of scholarship. and m1' mother' "\nne
G l a t z e r . o 1 'l i v e h ' ( t n g a g e m e l l t J. o s i t ' . r n t d a t r g h t e r ' s t r c n g t h e n e dm e i n
c o u n t l e s sl o v i n g r v a l - s .
Thephotographslbrthcllclokrn,ercl.rrairrll'takenbr'CharlesEamesarrd
tht
B i l l T o n d r e a u a t t h e t i m c s ' e \ \ ' e r c m a k i n g o u r f i l m ' D a u m i e r 'P a r i s a n d
S l t e c t a t o rr,g T T . C h a r l e s E a m t ' s ' r ' i s i o t t h a s n r c a n t a w o r l d t o m e
Jt'DrTH \\'L.CHSLER
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p o c t p a r e x c e l l e r r c co f t h i s p e r i o d - a l l p r a c t i s c c l r v i t h i n r h c l r a m e r v o r k
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ititrnut.as trre'uould ile see, br-:r
s t r a n g e r a s t h e c a r i c a t u r i s t d o t _ , sp.c r f i r r c e r a t l i e r .t h . r n
br.djrect star,._
r n e n t o f ' c h a l a c r c . ro r o r i g r n s . .
f ' h i s s t u d r . r r h i c h i s r e s t r i c r c ctlo t h c c i c c a d e sb c t r r . e c .t h t : . J u l ' R e r . o l u t i o n o f r B 3 o a n d r h c l i r u 1 1 6 1 1oni 'nr h 1 T h i r d R e p u b l i c i n r B 7 o . i s a 6 o u t
the
description of peop)e from i'irhour: rrrt: parisia''s characteristic
preoccuparionn'ith 'isiblc bcdil'crucs r. cl.ss. proressicrn.
c h a r a c c e ra ' d
c i r c u m s t a n c e s .i h r o u g h c a r i c a t u r e . p o p u l a r r ' r i t i n g a n d t h e a t r e , p a r i s i a n
t ' p e - sa n l r h c i r d i s t i n g u i s h i n gt r a i t s r v e r e . o d i r i e d ; i n t h e
*a'the'nracir
s e n s eo f ' t h e c i t ' t o i t s c l l . t h t ' s e a r t s * ' e r e t h e a n t c c c d r n r s
of more for.mal
m o d e l so f t h e l r r l > a np o p u l a r i o n j n s o c i o l o g r c l en r o g r ap h v a n c l
criminologr..
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and th. .ii,
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c i l \ . a n c lc i t r . n c i s h _
bourhoods lost their autonomous characrer) traditionar
roles *,crc lo,st.
t r a d i t i o n a lo b l i g a t i o n sr ' c r e u . t ' n f t r r c c c ra. n c rt r a d i t i o n a r
bchar.ioursecnred
t n e x p e d i c n ro r n a i ' c . u p * a r d m o b i r i n - m a ' n o t
ha'e been a rearitv ror
m u c h o f t h c b o u r g e o i s i ea n d p c t i t e b o u r e c o i s j e . ;
b u r i r r v e , a c o n s r a n lp r c _
occupation: there r'as an cager markct [b.
talt:s o{ ambitio. and selr'l m p r o v c m e n t . \ r : r v i n f o l m a l c o d c so l - b t
h a v j o L r r e m e r . g c c ll.c r ro r i c n t a t i o r . r .
oduction
Introdt
I b r e m u l a t i o n z r t r ds i m u l a t i o n . t o r c c n g n i z e o t h e r s a n d t o h o l d o n e ' s o u n .
l ' h c i l l u s t r a r c c ln c \ l s p a p e r s r | e r e a r . e h i c l c l b r i d t : n t i f \ i n g . c l c c i p h e r i n g a n d
commuttictttine the signalsand ttornts o{'urllall t:'\chanqe.
O u r c r o s s - s e c t i o nt h r o u q h t l . r t s cc l t l t u r a l s h i l i s i s a p p r o a c h e d p r - i m a l i h '
b V w a v o f c a r i c a t r , r rieD t h c d a i l r ' p r c s s .\ \ ' h e n c a r i c a t t t r ei s d i r c u s s e di n t h c
historr of':rrr, although its political :rnd social conlcxt is ackr.rowlcdgcd,
f b r n r a l l r i r i s a n a l l . s t : c il n r e l a r i o n s h i p r O p r i n L s a r t d d r a i r i n g s . B u t c a r i and
c a r u r c c a n a l s ob e l o o k e d a t i n r e l a t i 0 n r o r h c t r a d i t i o n o l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
p o l i t i c a l c e n s o r s h i p f, r o m r S 3 i r r >r B 4 B a n d f i o r n r 8 5 r r . r 8 6 6 ; C h a p t e r s
'fhree
a n d l ' i ' c d i s c u s ss . m c o f r l r e p o l i t i c z i lc o n t e n t r r f r h i s s o c i a la n a i r . , i r .
\ \ ' h c r l r e - ri r c n r p l o r s r h . g r o t e s q r r cd e l i r r n r a t i o . s . r L c , t r i s - L e o p o l dB , r i i l r
-l'rariis.
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the Ianrasri< transrormari.rrs of Grandville or the
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r ' i t l r g z nr " p a i n t i n g . w h i c l r b ' d e f
ition I)ortra's rylttt rather than incli'iduals. a'd m.desr, ofte' domestir'. situati.'s r;ither than the cxaltccl
p c r s o n a e r 'o
s f h i s l o r v p a i l rt i r r g .
S o c i a l c n r i c a t u r c i n t h c n e \ \ ' s p a l ) e r \\ \ . e . t o L r t t o f i n d i t s p u b l i c i n r h e
s t r c e t sn n d c a l i s : i t u a s c o n s u n r c dc a s r r a l l r ' a
. s B a r r d r - l a i r cp o i n t e c l o u t .
: i L r n g r r ' i t l r t l r e n e r v sa n d m o r n i n g c o f l ' c c . f o b e s u c c c s s f i i lu i t h i t s p u b l i c .
i t h a d t o t l c v c l o p a p l l n g c n r . r n c l r : r J r i dc o m m u r r i ( . : r r i v r\ ( , c a b u l a r \ . e _ \ _
ploiting thc eraphic limitationr oIits meansof reprodLretion.
T h e . j o r r r n a l i s t i c d r z r u g h t s n - r a n r, . r f r e nw . o r k i n g d i r e c t l v o n t h e l i t l r o _
qraphic store. r'.ls a peribrrncr. in dail'clialogue uirlr the public
ivho
u'are also his subject miltter. I)aumitr's drau.ing has a communicativc
Lrra'.ra ard cc..orn' rvhich is crrnparablc to the disciplineol'mime.
r v i t h i t s s u c c i r ) c rt - r ' o c a t i o nn l c l r a r ; r rt e r a ' r : l s i r r r : r t i o nB. o t l r c a r i c a t u r e a n c l
m i r n e d r e r r a r r i s t i c a c l ra . t a q e l i ' o i n t h t i r r n a r g i n i r l s t a t u s . r A n o t h e r
g c n t ' r a t i o n h a d t o p a s : b e f r l r cs t L r d i ,p : r i , r i ' e a . d ' o f l i t . i a l ' t h e a t r c
coulcl
.llow thr'rllscl'cs to profit Iiom the acl'a.r't.s in rea.li.rn*hich had been
* o n i n t h c s r p o p u l a r a r t s . B o r h c a r i c : r r r r r ea n c l m i n r c u ) e \ c r n a c u l d r
c o d t : sd i ' e c t h . c f l e c t i r e o f d a i l r l i l c . B o t h a r c d i r e c t e d t o r h e e \ - c _ t h c '
s h o * u h a r t h . . r l . r a n s p e c l a t ( ) r' r c . \ .t h r ( ) u g l l h i g h l r a r r i c u l a t e . a n d . r t
t i r n c ss u l r re r r i v e . s i l c r r c t .
( l a r i c u t u r e d n r . r ' r o n a r r d d c r r . l c , l >ast u o l i r i < l
t r a c l i r i r ; n :t h a t c l l - p h r . s i o s - . . n o r n i c s .r l i t . l a s s i f i c a r i < )(nr f [ ) r o J ] 1 i. . i ( ) . l l , r r r l c r ( , rt r p e s : r c c , r c l i r r gt o ( ) r l r * a r c l b . d i l ' s i g n s . s u c h a s r h c s l l a p ( . o t r h c . r ' t . s . l b r e h e a c l .m o u r h . a n d
srr
' n : a ' d t h a t o f p a t l . r o g . o n t i < : s .r h c i n t e r P r t , t a t i o n o l - c h a n q i n g e m o t i . . s
b r ' 1 a . i a l o r b o d i l ' c x y r r e s s i o n .I r r n i ' c t e c . t h - c e . t u r \ l , a r i : . i n a c o r r e \ r
o 1 ' r r r b a np i ' . s s u r e .d i s l o c a r i o n: r n d m . s s t o m r n L r r r i c a r i c i 't.h i s v i s u a l l o r c
o f p h r s i o e r r o m r ' .b e a r i n g a n d q c s t r r r t g
: z l i n e c cl u r r e n c r . i m m e d i a c r . a n d
arti-sti1
p 6 1 . 6 ' , .l ' h . c a r i c a t u r i s r \d r c \ r r h c i r s i l . ' t ' o c a l > r r l a r ' i n p a . i f i o ' , r
t h c a c a d c n r i cr u l e s i b r r h c p i . r o r i a l ' e x p r c s s i . no f t h c p a s s i o r s ' a n d i n
parr
f i ' o n r n r o l e i r r l i r r m a l r r r o c l e i sr r l s of a m i l i a r . t ( J t h c i r l u c l i e n c t :
-l'|rc
i n t t r y ) * r a r i n z. l ' b o d i l ' r i q . s . , r . { l r c p r e n r i s c t r r a L t r a i t s o f i n u . a r c l
c h a r : l c t e ra r e l i n k e c l r l i t h o r r t r r : t r d t r e i t s , r l b o c l r a n < l f i . a t u r c ,
e o e sb a c k
t o z rt r e a r i s ( , o nP h t ; i o p n r i n t u ra.t r r i b u t c c li n r l r c \ I i c l d l c . \ s c s t o A r i s t o r l r .
and thought ro be a prudential guide lbr his pupil r\lcxander.
if.hc text
m a k c s e x t c r r s i r , 'ues e o l t h c a n a l c i q r ' r i . n r t h c l o r n r s a . d i m p u t e d ' c h a r a c t e r ,
'
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of animals:
H i t h h o o k c d n o s e sa r c f t . r o c i o u s ir r . i t n c s h
s a w k s ,1 . I n
Chapter One and its lbotnores I bricllr cliscussJohann
Caspar.Lavater,s
l a r c e i g h r e e n t h - c en t L r r ' L ' , . 1 r tr b r . u n n a i l t ltt . , h , n t t n r sp a t l a p l t - t t t o n o m i c .
ftrst
c o d i f i ca t i o n o f h u n r a n t v p e s .
'I-h
j r c a r i c a t u r t j o u t - n a l s: t h c
e v c a r I B 3 o n r a r k s t h c f o u n d i n g o f t h c n l a .o
t 8 7 o s s c c t h c i t r t r o c l t t c t i o l lo f ' p h o t o g l a v t r r c ' n i t i c l r t t u d e r t t L t : t l t c i n ibrr.nativt: rolt of drauglttsmanship. t he ma.ior rr.ork of Daumie r'
Gavarni iGuillaume Chevalier'. Grand\ille and Henrr' '\lonnicr ialls
rvithin thcsc ibur decades. scorcs o{'othcr t'aricaturists rrct'e at \\'(Jrk:
i l l u s t r a t e c li r i u r n a l s a n < 1c h c a p e d i r i r . r n sp r o l i l e r a t e d . r e a c h i n s a v e r V b r o a d
a u d i e n t : ea t a t i m e t v h c n h a l i ' t h c p o l l t r i a t i o n o 1 ' P : { r i sl ' a s s t i l l i l l i t c r a t e .
0 1 r h i s n r : i r c r i a lh a s e n t e r c d t h c h i s t o n o f
onlr.rhc most clistinguishe<
a r t : l ) u t . c o n s i d t - r ' cac l t o g e t h e r .i t f r r r t l t sa p i c t o r i a l t : o n t l ' i b u t i o no i c x t r : r or.dinarr. quali|\. rcr cultural and .ocia] historr.' claricature rccorded
m o o c l sa n d i i r r i r u d c so f c i t Y l i f ' e- b , r r t c l o m . a l i e n a t i o n . s o c i a l c l i s p l a c e m e n t .
p , , l i ti e , r ll l t l r (: ( a n d q e l f - r , t r ' c i o r t ' l:t' '.
'fhrec
m a i n s r r a n c l sc a n b t - d i s t i n g u i s h c d i n c : a r i c n t u r e. a n c l e a c h h a s i t s
o r r . n r e l a t i o r r t 0 o u r t h e m e . ( ) i l e i s r l r c p a r t r a i l . h a t , q t .\ h i c h d e p i c t s : i n
i r r d i ' i r l u a l ' u s u a l l r a p o l i t i c : a l f i g u r c ' r r i t l - rn 1 ( ) r eo r l t ' s sc x a g g c r : r t i . ' o f h i s
c l r a r a c t e r i s t i cl e a t r r r c so f f a c t : o t ' l ) , r d r ' O f t c n t h i s e x a g q e r a t i o n h a s a
s i l t i r r c a lm c s s a g ci.t r t h e a n c i c n r t r a d i t i o n o 1 ' a n i m a l - h r t r n a an n a l o q i e su s c c l
a s a c o d c l b r h L r m a nc h a r a c t c r . - . \r ' a ri c a t r r | i s ts t r es s i n qr i r eo r ! i i : h c r c s a r l d
s m a l l b e a k r . n o s e o f . \ d o l p h e T h i e r s . p o l i t i c i a n a n d h i s t o r i a n ' \ \ ' a sn o t
mereli, Iincling a humorous forntula to rcfer to a public li{ttre, he rta.
commenring on Thicrs's political personalitr'. his afl'ectation of sharps i s h t c d u ' i s d o m .t h e o u l ' s t r a d i t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e .
'rhc
s c c o n c ls r r a n d i s t h e a l l e g o r i c a l i n r c r p r e t a t i o l )o f p u b l i c e V e n t s .
N a t i o n s . f a c t i o n s .o r a b s t r a c t i o n ss r t c h : r sP e a c c o r D r p J o n l a c r ' a r e r c p r e s c n t e c l b V s i n g l e f i g L r r e sr r . i t h r c r : r . l g n i z a l t l ec h a r a c t e r i s t i rs . a n d t h c a t ' t i o t r
o f t h e c a r i c a t u r e i s a t r a n s p o s i t i o r lo t . a n d a c o n l n l e l l t o r l ' t h e p u l ' ' l i t
situation. f,rnblematic figurcs. sttch as Robcrt \Iacairc and Joseph
P r u d h o m m c , \ \ ' h o r c p r e s e n t e d t l t c c h : r r a c t e r i s t i c so f t h c i r p e r i o d ' r l e r c a
p o p u l a r d e v i c c l b r s o c i a la n c l p o l i t i c a l c o m m c n t . H c r e t h c r e i s a n e l e m c n t
of .i,ldl.-g._,.rrins anclof punning, involr.ing thc audience in the plcasures
o l d e c i p h e r i n ga s i l e n t c o d e .
T h e t h i r d s r r a n c l . l v h i c h i s e x p l o r c d r l l o r e f u l l \ t h a r . rt h c o t l . r e r si n t h i s
s t u c l r . i.s s ( ) c i a cl a f i c a t u r e- t h f ' s a t i r i c a lp r e s c n t a t i o no f ' t r p i c a l c h a t r a c t e r s
i , , , : r l e r , . d a rs.i ( u a t i o n s .T h i s e l e r n e n tp r e d o m i n a t c d d t r r i n g t h c p e r i o c l so f
r4
I5
*
t'
i
rodu(tron
[ntrod
p u b l i s h e d i n P a r i s i n r 8 o 6 9 . r v h i c h e s t a b l i s h r : dt h i s t r a d i t i o n o f p h 1 ' s i o gnomic sign-rcading as part o{'the cuiturc ol'nineteenth-century France.
Anothcr schema or .scloi'corrvcntional signs uhich was lamijiarlv
p r c s e n t . o s p e c i a l l vt o t h c c a r i c a t u r i s t . n ' a s t h a t o f t h c m a n u a l s f b r p a i n t e r s .
g i v i n g r u l e s f < t rd e p i c t i t ge m o t i o n a n d c h a r : L t t c r . l - h i s t r a d i t i o n . t o o . n h o s e
principal text in ninetcenth-centurr Frirnce rvas Charlcs Lc Brun's
C o r t J i r e n cseu r l ' e x p r u t i o ng l n i r a / e e t p a r t i c u l t i r e r 6 q 8 , , i s c l o s e l v l i n k e d i r , i t h
t h e r r c a t i s c so n p h v s i o g n o m i c s : i t r e a d s t h c s a n r e c o d c . a s i t r r ' c r e . i n r h e
o p p o s i t c d i r e c t i o n . \ \ : h e r c p h v s i o e n o m i c s . l i ' o m p s e u d o - A r i s t o r l et h r o u s l l
L:ivatcr. starts liom rhe ourrvard sign arrcl teatlres ho* to inrerpret it in
t e r m s o 1 i r r r v a r d c h a r a c t e r , t h e t r c a t i s c s{ b r p a i n t c r s s l a r t l r o m a n e m o t i o n
o r d i s p o s i t i o na n d t e a c h t h c s i g n su ' h i c h u i l l e \ p r e s si t : a n d i n t l i i s t h e r
l i r e p i r . r a l l c l e db ! q r " r i d e st o g e s t u r e f t ) r a c f o l ' s a n d o r a t o r s .
Elerv phr.siognomic codincatron is also a classification ol' human
c h a r a c t ( f t l p e s : p . s c u d o - A r i s t o t l c ' s P l g s i o g n n m i r sh a s i t s n e a r - c o r ' ) t c m p o r a r r c r > m p l e m e l ) t i n T h e o p h r a s t u s ' C h a r a c t c r i .s h o r t v i g n e t t e s u ' h i c h
d e s < : r i b e i.n t e r m s o 1 ' s o c i a i b e h a r i o u r r a t h c r t h a n p h 1 ' s i o g n o m r . t h e
'tcdious
n r a n ' . t h e ' i d l e m a n ' . a n d s o o n . 1 ' h l o L r g h J e a nd e L a B r u v i r e ' s
Le.s Carattlres dc Theopba.;lr. tradutls du g7(, az(( let carattlres ou maaurt de
t t s i i c l e t 6 8 8 , r h c s ev i g n e r t c s a r e t h ( ' s o u r c e l c r r a c o n r i n u i n g ' l j t e r a r u r e o f '
moarrs' imorcs: social bchaviour, habits. customs. mannrrs . l'his essari s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o no l ' h u m a n t v p t : si n t c r a c t s u i t l i p h r s i o e n o m i c a n a l r s i s .
a n c i i s r v i d c l v u s e d i n o u r p r : r i o d : t h c p o p u l a r P h , r s t o l o g i c sp a p c r l ; o u n d
l r o o k s o n P a r i s i a - nt l p c s
arc dcscriptions ol'nneur; rathcr than of bodilr
f e at L r c s .
'I'he
P h - r ; i o l o g i ezi r l s ob e : r r n i t n c s s 1 o t h c l a l n i l i a r i n o f a n o t h e r s c l r c n r a
o { c l a s s r 6 c a t i o r ro f l i v i n g b c i n g s i n h c r i t c d I i o n r a n e a r l i c r c e n t u r \ ' . F ( ) r
c o m i c e f l ' e c t .t h e P h . 1 , . ; i o l o (gJi ?
el ' i h t d i a i l t l 8 4 r d e s c r i b c st h c v a r i e t i e s a n d
b c h : r v i o u r o l t h e s p c c i e sS t u d e n t i n l b r n r s t h a t r e c a l i a n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n ' s
atrcount ol a spccies of butterflr'. Gcorqes Louis Leclelc de Buffon s
Histoirt naturelle glniralt et partituli)re aiu la dt.;tription du cabinet du roi
r749 rflo4. 14 r'r,llumes l.a.salmost a: hr.rriliar a tesr in thc mid-ninet e e n t h c e n t u r v a s L a B r u v d r e . I n C l h a p t c r O r . r cI t o u c h o n B u l J b n ' s m o d c l
o f o b s e l v a t i o n a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o na s a f i a r n c o f r e l c r c n c e l o r B a l z a ( . i \ ' h o
t r a n s p o s c si t . n c l t m e r e l r ' l o r c o m i c i j f f e c t . t o , . o c i a l d e s c r i p t i o n .
C ) n e l a s t c l o s s - s c c t i o nt h r o u g h t h i s m a n i f t r l d o l s i g n - q i v i n g a n d s i q n reading is provided br the rules for dccorunr. uhich also lormed part of'
'f
t h e p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r c o f o u r p e r i o d . h c C n d e s, s e eC h a p t e r O n c . . l i k e a
c e r t a i n k i n d o [ ' p o p u l a r s o c i o i o g \ ' - ( - - u m - s e l f - i m p r o v e m e nl itt e r a t u r e i n o u r
o$,n time . appcaled both asentert:rininq sotial comnrent and asguidelints
l b r r h e n a i v c a n d r o r a n t b i t i o u s . \ \ ' e s h a l l s e e i n C ) h a p t e r sF o u r a n d F i v e
h o n , ) { o n n i e r a n d D a u m i e r m a k e s a t i r i c a l u s e o f t l i e c o m m o n p l a c e so f
dccorum and self-prescntatlon.
lb
Th-epremise explored in this studr is that thesc
combined traditidns of
classificatio. and characterization pro'ided
a I u n c t i o n a l b a s ef o i u . . ; ; ;
o f ' . s o c i a ld c s c r i p t i o n . i n w h i c h r h c u . o r k o f r h e c a r i c a t u r i s t s
is central. I.
this enterp.isc. rvh.se motto was Daumier's .one
m u s t b e o r . o n e , st i m c ,
- rvrirers and graphic
artistsJ Romantics and Realists, were equally.
engaged.4
\\'c shall see holv the exemplarl. spccrators
of our period , Balzac,
D a u m i e r a n d B a u d e l a i r e a s w . e l la s J e a n - B a p r i s t e
Gaspard Dcburau, the
mime. Charles Philipon. thc impresario of caricature
publications, ancl
:\Ionnier, tlie actor-writcr-caricaturist were
all praiscd in their tirne ror
havine updated the r.ocabulan.of their rcspective
arts, making ir complex
and subtlc enough to represenrncrv urban relationships.
Co.ri.-porJ.i..
r e c o g - n i z e da n a n a l o g r . . e v e n a s v m m e t r t . . b e t r v e c n
the talentsand oeuvres
o { B a l z a c . D e b u r a u a n d D a u m i e r : e a c h r v a sa m a s t e r
of silent expression.
Both Deburau and Daumier. of artisan starus
bv birrh, and ,uJ.ki.rg in
strictlv popular art forms, wcre hailed ,, 'g..ui
artists,: George Sind
chailenginglv ser rhe populist Dcburau alongside
the great classica.l
a c t r e s sa n d a c t o r o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e r r t h
c e n t u r ) . ,R a c h e l a n d
'ralma;
B a u d e l a i r e c l a s s e dD a u m i e r u ' i t h I n g r e s a n d D e l a c r o i x .
Each was
perceivcd as fulfilling, in his or.n arr, Balzac,sprogramme
of La ComidLe
humame.
i
i
I
t
I
i
',E
:i
4
f
t
Ourleaf
3 B i r d ' s - e y ev i e u o f P a r i s : r . i c r . f r o m r h c c l o c k _ r o t e r
ofsainr-l,oursen l.Ilc
Texier, Tableaude patis. rglz
3
One Parisianpanorama:
codesand classifications
Intcrpersonal rclationships in biq cities are distinguishcd bv a marked
of the eve or er the actir itv of rhc ear.
preponderance of the activin
GLORG
SI\{[IEI,
Tsr mid-nineteenth centurv is thc period of the bird's-er.e vieu'. The
p a n o r a m a r v a sa c o m p r e h e n s i v c a n d d i s t a n c i n g c r r n c e p t u a l m o d e a n d a
d c v i c e o { ' p e r s p e c t i v ei n l i t e r a t u r e a n d t h e v i s u a l a r t s : \ ' i c t o r H u g o ' s
opening scene in .\'otre-Dant de Poris rl33I : Eugdne de Rastignac in
Balzac'sPire Goritt irB35l, gazing doxn on Paris lrom the Pdre Lachaise
c e m c t e r \ ' : t h e f i ' o n t i s p i e c c st o t h r c e p o p u l a r c o m p e n d i a o n P a r i s i a n l i f e .
L e D i a b l e d P a r i s , ' 1 8 + 5 - 6 1E
. d m o n d T e r i e r ' s T a b l e a ud e P a r i s ' I B 5 z - 3 .
a n d P a r i s d a n ss a s l t l n d e u r i r 8 6 r . i t h e d i o r a m a s a n d p a n o r a m a s o f f e r e d a s
p u b l i c s p e c t a c l e so f t h e c i t r ' . o f u h i c h L o u i s - J a c q u e s - \ I a n d r d D a g u e r r e ' s
was best knou'n: Daumier's depiction of \adar photographing from his
aerial balloonl tl)e earlv phoroeraphers, Dagucrre. \icdphore \iepce
and Hcnrv le Secq'svierv of Paris from the tops of buildings.
H o n o r e d e B a l z a c , l 7 g g - r B 5 o , o c c u p i e : z Lk c v p o s i t i o n i n t h i s s t u d r ' .
A s a m a n o f l e t t e r s h e w a s s t e e p e di n E n l i g h t c n m e n t a n d e a r l i e r m o d c l s o f
characterization and classification: La Bruvire's ]{ocurs dc te siaLe.
Buffon's Histoire naturelle.and Lavater'-s idioslncratic L'Art de connaitreles
h o m m t .p; a r 1 a! , h - t . s i n n o mai rec t h e t h r e e * h i c h m o s r d i r r c t l v c o n c c r n u s . :
A n d a s a p l o l i f i c d a r ' - t o - d a r . r r r i t e r f o r t h e p o p u l a r p r e s s .B a l z a c c o m b i n e d
a n d c r p l o i t e d t h e s em o d e l s i n f o r m a l l v . H i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n su n d c r l i e o u r
u - h o l e t h e m e : h i s i n s i s t e n c eo r . rs o c i a l m o b i l i t r ' . h i s f a s c i n a t i o n l i t h b o d i l v
exprcssion as a manil'estation of social conditioning and his interesr in
m a n i p u l a t i o n o f e x p r e s s i o nf o r s o c i a i e n d s .
Balzac's master-imase of his own enterprise is that of an abstraction of
h i s s u b j e c t . s o c i e t v ,s p r e a d o u t a n d s c a n n e d f r o m a t r o v e : a b i r d ' s - e v e v i e u ,
a panorama, a map or a schematic diagram n'here tlpes are re-arransed
i n t o a m a t r i x o r a h i e r a r c h v . T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l vd i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e R e a i i s t
m a s t e r - i m a g eo f t h e n o v e l a s ' a m i r r o r u ' h i c h o n e u a l k s a l o n g t h e s t r e e t ' . r
T h e e i g h t v n o v e l s a n d s t o r i e s t h a t c o m p r i s c B a l z a c ' s I - a C o m i d i ch u m a i n e
20
1 D r u v r r r r . ' \ a d . r r E l c r . a t i n qP h o r o e r a p h r
n panorama
Pat isian panotamd
// --'---
''j
**ffii
7---:i:
.r.6. 7 Ll'rrrx
viervsol an itrdcrrt geniu\ rr.hici: cnritracc,sr.rcr vtiritrg tn one uup d,oal, axl
t h e s m a l l a t t e n c i o nos i ' a d i ) i g e n ti n s t i n c t* h i c h a r r a c h e ist s c l f t o o n c s i n q l e
p o rn t . 6
B u f f . n ' s i ' s i s t e n . e o n r h e s r . t . s o i ' i n t l h i d u a l s* i t l i i n a l b r m a l s i s t e m . f
c l a s s i f i c a t i o .i s a l s o p c r t i n c . r r o o u r t h e m t : " l h e m o r c $ . e i n c r e a s er h e
n u m b e r o f d i r . i s i o n si n t h c l t r o d u c t i o n r o l n a t u r c . t h e c l o s e r u e s h a l l
approach to thc true. since nrithing reallv erists c\cepr individuals."
Bullirrr'iideal calls Ib. a c.ml;irrat.r'r lericorr.r'distingui;hing ch,ract er i st i c s .
I n r e i a t i o n t o h u m a n k i n d . J o h a n n C i a s p . r rL a r . a t e r r 7 4 r r f l o r . t h c
S r r . i r s 1 t h r s i r , r { . o r n c r . p r o p o s e d a l a r gl t.:rx i r : o n o i ' d i s t i n g u i s h i n q s i q n s t h : r n
a n r p r c r i o L r sa u r h o r : t h c m a s s i v t p- o p u l a r i t r o f h i s t r c a t i s ea l l o r . e rE u r o D c
a t t h t ' b e g i n n i n g 9 f t h e n i n e t e e l t | c e q t L l l ' \ . i n d i t . : r t ae sq r o \ \ i l g r l a r k " L t t r
charactt rological interprctation. His phlsioenomic studr. first appeared
i n C e r m a n r i n r ; 7 5 8 . 8 I t u a s p u b l i s h c d i n F r a n c e i n b c r r r . e e nr
TBr ar)cl
rBo3. unde. the titlc Es.ratsur la ph,ttiagrunonitdestinl:aJaire connaitre
I'homrne
e t i l r J a i r t a i n t n . . , r n d t h c n i u a r n r ) r c p o 1 > u l a ra r r d , s u c c e s s f i rel d i t i o n .
a . n o r n t c d a . d i l l i r s t r a t e di n [ b u r r o i r :r n c si ' r 8 o 6 - g , e d i t e c b
l r Dr \Iorcau
d e l a S a r t h e . u n d e r t h e t i r l c Z ' . ' l r t d e r o n n a i t r tl t : h o m m ep. ra r l a p h ; ; s i o n o m i e .
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o l h i s u o r k , a r c c r p l o r a r i o n so f a c h a r t r l l r i c l r B . r l z a ci r r t a g i n e a
- .s c o n r p l e t e
a n d s i m u l t a n e o u s l rp r t - s c n t .
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s t u d i e s ' a t t a c h c d t o L u L ' o n t t d i th u n n t n t B a l z a c p r c s e n t - .
a l u l l - s c a l re: u l o g v c ' f 1 h c ( ) b s c n c r . t l r t r m u s l h a v e t r o t h a h i g h v i c r v p o r n t
:rnd an rr c lirr detaii :
'['hr
c r b , s ccr r i s i n r : o n t c s t a ] r ht i t t ' m z r r ro l q e n i t t r ., \ l l h L r m a nr n \ e n n o n sc o n r f l
l l o m a n a n ; r l v t r co b , s r na ( i o n i n r r - l r ihr t i r t r n i n d a c t r u i t h a n i n c r c d i b l t
r a p i d i t r o l i n s i e h t sG
. a l l . L a v a t e r .\ 1 r ' s n r t r (. l r n ' i c r . . . B e r n a r dd c P a l i s s r ' .
t l r cp r c c r r r s oorf B u f f o n .
\ e r r t o n . a r : da l . o I ) r cq r t - a tp a i n t c ra n c lt l t c q r e a t
I n L r : i . i a u:.r l l : r r co b s e r l c r s . . t h o s cs u b i i n r t ' b i r d o
s l - p r e rl l t o . u h i l e r i s i n q
t o I r i g h r c e i o n s .b a r e t h e q i l i o l ; c e i n g c l c a r l r i n r n a t t c f sh e r €b e l o r r .r v h o c a n
a l t( l l ( s a n r et i m ( a l i s t r a c ra n d s p c | i l i . r r r k c c r : r , t a n a l rs c .a n c l- i u . ts | n t h e i c \ '
. \ J r h o r r g h B : r l z a c ' sl i s l o f ' s r c a t o b s e n t ' r ' sr a t h e r p o i n t c d l v r c f e r : t r r
B u f f o r ro n l r t o o n r i t h i m i n t b v o u r o l ' I ) c P a l i s . r . t h e l r ' i s a s t l i k i n g p a r a l i c l
betrr.cr:rh
r is account and a passaet in Buffon's Histoirt naturell( rj+q.
A l i t ' r a n a c k n o r r ' l e d s m o r t o i t h c p r o d i e i o u i m u l t i p l i c i t r c . l 'n a r u r e . f a r
b e r o r t d a n v o n c s t u d e n t ' s c a p a c j t \ ' . 1 3 u f l o ng i r c s h i s r c q u i r c m c n t s l o r t h c
g o o c li n V e s t i q a t o r :
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i s a k i n d o 1 ' r n e n t a( l( ' u r r g e i n e n r i r . r g i n q
n a t u r ci n t h ei n n u m e r : r b i e
r n u l t i t u d e o l h c r p r o d u c t i o n s .a n d i n l > c l i e v i n eo n c s e ) f ' c a p a b l o
el c o m p r t ' h en d i n g a n c lc o m p a r i n q t h c m . . . o n c n r a \ s a r t h a t r h e l o v c 'o f t h e s t u d r o 1 '
n a l u r c p r e s u p p o s ets\ r , oq u a l i r i c * o f m i n d r l h i c h s c e m c o n f l i c r i n g :t h e l a r c c
,+
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a n d r e i s s u c d i n t B . . z oi n t c l r v o l u m c s . e \ u r n c r o u s o t h c r e d i t i o n s . s o m t '
a b r i d e e d . e v r : ui n p o c k e t s i z e . r r e r e i s s u r . ctl v c r t h e h u n d r e d a n d i i l i r v e a r - .
a f t c r t h c b o o k ' s f i r s t a p p e a r a n c f . I - a v a t t r * a s a b a s i cr e - \ o u r c e
in a g(.ntlcm a n s h o m c . t o b e c o n s u l t e c lu h e n h i l i n e s r a f l m a k i n g l i i e n d s a n c l
, . t a b I i s l r r n ql t r r : i l r " i rse l r r r i u n s .
L a v a t c r ' s p r c m i s er t a s r h e c o r r . s p o r ) d . t ) ( ' o
e i p h v s i c a Ja p p c a r a . nct a n c l
m o r a l c h a r a c t e r : h c t a u g h t ' t i r e s c i c n c eo r k n o u l e d g c o f ' t h e c o t r c - . p o n r l e u . c l ) e t r v e c r lt h ( ' c r i t e r n : r l a n d i n t c r n a l n t a r l . t h e v i s i i r i e s u p e r l i c i c s a n d
t h c i n v i s i b l cc o n t . l ) r s ,' ' H e i n t c n d e dl r i su o r k p r i n r a r i l r a s a m o r a l a n d
prudential quide and. coliaterallr'a
, s a s o u r c cb o o k i b r p a i n t e r s .
T h e c o c l i f i c a t i o n* ' h i c h h a d b c g u n * i t h p s e u d o - A r i s r o t l c ' sP l 4 : r o g n o n t i r s
a t r d b c c a t n e a p r a l i m a t i c s r s l e r n l b r l ) a i n t e r s i r r L e B n r n ' s ( . o t t f , : r r n t sc u r
L ' t t p r e s : i o ng t t n i r a l t c l p a r t i r u l i i r ' t . f i r s t d e l i i c r c d i n r 6 6 8 . u a s e x p i r n c l e d
l - r i l , a v a t e r i n t o a s \ s t r t m o f c l : r s s i { i c a t r o na n d c o d i f i c a t i o t i c l l ' t } . r ei b r n t s o { '
the parts ol'rhc human l;odv and rhcir-corrr;pr:rnclinm
g oraJ rrajts.,.
L a v a ( e r m a i n t a i n e d t h c t r a d i t i o n o f a n i n i a l - h u n t a n p a r i r l l c l , sa - .a b a s i sf o r
n t o r a l i n t e r p r t ' t a t i o n . E a c h l t e r s r , r rirs a n i n c l i v i d u a l s o u l a n d e a c h s i n g l c
leatulc has'thc naturc and (haraclcr of'thc rrhole and can serlc as a
k ( ' \ ' t ( ) t h c p c r s o ns c h a r a t t c r . ' r C h a p t c r s a r e d c v o t e d t o t h c v a r j e r \ ' o 1 '
s i n g l c i b a t u r c s e v e s .n o s e s .m o u t h s . a u d s o o n .
L i k c . \ r - i s t o t l c .f ) e s ( a r t c s .L c B r u r r i r r r dH o g r r r - t l r . 'Lr a \ a t e r m a i n t ; i i n e r l
that r:ficn-rcpe:rtcd er:rotions lcave their l.n:rlk on tht pcrmancnt cxp f r ' s s i o no f a p e r s o n . s o t h a t . l b r c x : r n t p l c .a n a n g r v m a n * i l l b e a r t h c
n r a r k so f h i s d i s p o i i t i o n i n a p c ' r r n : r r r r ' rslc o r t l : ' O u r g a i t a n d d e1 ; o r r m c n r
: i l ' c l r a t L l r : r ol n l r i n p a r t a r . r du c q e n i ' r a l l t b l c n d u i t h t h c n t s o m c t h i n q
b o r r o r . l e do l i r n i t a t e d .B r r t c t e t r t h c s ci n r i t : r t i o n ra n d t h c h a b i t s t h c v r r a k c
u r c o l l t r a (t ! ? r f es t i . l lr h e | t s u l t s o l n a t u r e a r r c le n t c I i r r r o t h c p r i n r i t i r c
c h e r r : r c l c r . ' 'E
j d u c a t i o n . t r a i n i n s . e v e n o u ( s p r o f ' e s s i o nh.e t h o u q h t . h a d
a n c f f e c to n b e a r i n g : ' l ' r i f l e s o l t r n d e c i c l cn r r r t : hc o r r c e r n i n gt h c c h a r a c t e r
o f m a n . T h e m a n u e r o { r a l k i t r g .h o l d i r r so r r e t u r n i n q a t c a c u pi s l i c q r i c n t l r
l e r v s j q n i l l c : a n t .I t m a v b e a f l l r r n e d l l r a r u ' l r o e r r r c a n p c r f b r n r t h e s m a l l c i r
o t l i c e * ' i t h c n t i r e c i r c u m s p e r : t i o ui s c a p a l ; L . o 1 ' m u c h g r r a r e r . I 6
,r.{*
q, ro Ll
Bnr l.'Dc
humana pbrsiognonrica.: comparison o1-aninral
and human pht.riognr,mr
rtlerred ro eirher the r8o6 o. lB:o \rr)rcalr de Ia sarthe
edition. ivith irs
a.d 'pdated notes rvhich rellccred the personal i.tercsrs
.fits
editor a'd 1hc presumcd i.terests of its audic'cc.,p La'ater,s
lr.ork *as
pre.:ented *ith
emendations
zrnd cxcursj,rrs on curl.enl research into
phrcnologr
and phr-siognonl\ . r1s u.ell as sections on
Engel.s
J J
cightee'rh-centurr
oltse^ ali.'s on the analogies betrl,ee' phrrioenomv,
ausr.cnrcd
actirq
and pai.ti'g
and I)enis Diclerot o' exPr.essio..:" E.rp..luilr'
p"._
ard irlre.esting to Balzac ua: thc,trcntion
gi'en t. pr.ofessionsand
mdrr'crs. -\lrh'ugh
he had cired .ariors
'ccupatio's
ancl their r.isible
eJiects on bearing. La'atcr
had becn -,,.a a.,,.,a".,,.d *ith inborn than
n i t l r . r rq r r i r r d r h a r a , r e r i . r i t . .
ti.cnt
In his chaptcr.'Ob.sen.ations
sur. lcs signc-s phrsionomiqucs
p r o 1 c s s i , . s . ^ \ I o r c a u d e ' e J r l r s L a ' a t c r ' ' s l l ( ) t e s( ) n t h i s
distinctiorr:
dcs
'l
ht ma j.r 'lrie ties crf th. human \p('(ics ha\ e lr.en r'r:il
oliser'cd a'cr u.t,rl
clescribcd: it *rrulcl bc-'o lcss i.tt'rcsri.q ancl rrscfur to
stud\ thc dctailcd
vitnctrrs. rrhit.h are io nLlureroils. arrd uhi<.lr derirc
frorn rhe ciii.ersitr of
condirions oflilc amonq cir ilizcd pcoples.Each m(ticr.
ea. h prolrssion, should
q
c
n
r
r
a
l
in
l-rcreqardccl as a ltarticular t-ducarion. continuecl
through lile.
i v h i c h d e r e J ' p s . e x e r c i s e s .s r r e n g r r r c n s . c r r a i r o r q a n - . .
a n d e s t a b r i s h e sa s p c c i f i c
rclationship herrleen rhe indi.r.idual and his cnvironmenr.
l , a t a t e l c o r t c c i v r : dh i s * o r k i n t h e c , s t a b l i s l r e d
traclitjon oi'phvsiognonric
r v r i t i r r s . ' -H e c i t e t l h i s a u t h o r i t i e s t h c B i b l c . P l i n r ' . f l i c e r o . I l i c h e i d c
\Iontaignc. Gottlried Leibniz. Johann (]ortliied von Herdcr and
I r n m a n u e l K : r n t a s t c s t i m o n \ . t o r h e ( o r r e s p o n d e n c e sb e l r . . c c ni n n e l a n < l
outer states. For mcthod hc cited (larcrlus Linnacus. Jean-Baptisrc
In qencral. tlrc difibre.t profbssionsa..o,'ce
themsel'es. eirhcr br the
c o n d i r i o l , , 1t h t l i r r c h , , r d , n r l , r , . . , l t l r , . t a r r l . r r r r l
c o n f i q u r . r t i o no f t h e n . j n g .
o 1 ' t h c n o s e a n d t h c r n o u t h . a r c o r c r r n qr o r r h , t h c r . i r r
t h c c x e r c r s eo | t h . s c
prol.ssi.ns. exaitcd meditation. obscrrario.. p.r&rur.rd
arrd ra:ti.q frerines
p r e d o m r n a r e . o r r h e - ( u p e r n c i a la t t e n t i o n . c l u i c k p e r . c c p r i o n s
and smalj purrion,
of n'orldlr pcople.
L a m a r c k a n d B u f f o n : f o r h i s i l l u s t r a t i r . r n sh c d r c t ' f r e e l v o n L e B r u n a s
n ' e l l a s o n R a p h a e l , L e o n a r d o d a V i n c i . . . \ l b r e c h tD i i r e r a n d H o g a r r h . , \
A l t h o u e h l , a l a t e r ' s r v o r k n e v e r b e c a m e a t c x t b o o k a s d i d L . eB n r n ' s
guidelincs to paintcrs. his cncvclopcdia ol characters prefiqured and
s u p p o l t e d L i n p a r t t h r o u g h B a l z a c ' rn . r e d i a t i o nt h e p a n o r a n t i c .a n c c d o r a l
a n d p l u d e n t i a l l i t t : r a t r r r co 1 ' n i n e t e r n t h - c t - l r r u lPv a l i s . B a l z a c o r l n c d a n r i
S k i l l u l a n d v c r r e r p c r i c n c e c l s r r r g e o r ) sh a r c i n
their phrsioenomv a particular dominant trait. \\'hiclr t:r.cs fr-rm arr habit,al
nro'entel)t or raisirrqthc
;
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i:
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25
+
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il
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uppcr lip
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ro rhe t.ffbrf rht:r.makt: ro rcsjsr
rbe im_
p r c s s i o l rc a u s c d b r t h c s i g h t
o|sutri:rirrg ,,,,j p,;r; r hir h rhcr
har.e brlirre trreir
(,\ (,\ dIrlno l-l];rl(,()l)(.r
:
I
iiIlr)t)j.
todt.saru/ rla.srif
( r c r t a i n p r o l i s s i . r r s- , , u s i . c r s .
r a r r ' .a i p r o n r a c r ' .p o r i r i c sa n d p r . s r i t t r t i r . t r : g i t ' e t h c o b s e n . t . rf i - c q u e n t
o c c a s i o n r o e x c r c i s eb o r h p h r . s i o g n o n i i c
< l i s c r i m i n a t i o 'a , c i d i s s i n r r r r a r i o n :
I r ; , n n r i . . " t r t . c s p e c i a l l 'r h a t
peop)c
o l t h t ' r r o r . l d .t . o u r l i er s . a l l
t l r o r c r rh o t l r l t i v a r e
*'o make
it r.cirt;r:sine:s
tobeasrceal,l".
h;..l,lf.:i,:ffi[Hilil.
'trtdtr' upp,, iip.* t,,'. ,nu..1,.. ,,,.,..d1,",;;;
;i;,',,
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In his Phr:iolagit tlu tratia,qo:.
Balzac rnadc hi-. a.;ruo*,..,.Ogmenr
,
ro
l - a r ' : r r c re x p l i c i r : ' L a r . : r t e r . s _ F l r , r i , , g , r u , . , r ,
Ir;, ..,.r;:;':';:;i,::.;.::
r l h i c h h : l s , t a k c r i. trs p l a c c : r r
l a . t a r n J n g l r u n r a n k n o r r l c d g e . : . r1 n 6 l
6.|11r t h e r e : ' T h e l a r r s r : , 1D l r r : i o g 1 1 6 1 1 1 1
. fr r c . \ ; r c t . r ) o t o n l v a s t h c v a p p 1 r .
to
c i r a r u t r o . . L r u r ; r l s oa s t h e v a p p l r
i , , n " a . r r i , , " j c o u r s co f . i j l . c . . , .
Balzac
o{'phrsiognun,. ,.,
.. ;r;."rnlogr in manv of his
i ] ll is, f, ll,t] r. :t ^t ., o: ,d. *u: a
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,.as.,,,,...,,.j
;::,li:.;iii::';l:,;:*.:"'lil';ljfll:'ll;.,,,,,0
r;f;f.r
spccific
s.,ciat
c.onrcxt.
i, .r":lp.irr"rilvrhroughhim
l1]::.1r'l]l"n11,r.arrd
rnilt .l ne\\' repcftor\ o1'parisi,rrr
t ' l l e ) - e r r l ( . f g c ( li n n i r r c r e e . t l r _ . : ; ; ; ; . .
rrrrrati'c: tlre r;rrrearrr'r:rt.
t h " . u n r i c r . n . " , r , r l , . ', 1 , " s o c i a r
crir'rrer. the
l > a n k e r "r ' c m o n c r ' r e n r i e r - .
r h c s r ( ) (k - r ) . r a r . k p
e ira r . e r .r h c i n d u s r r i a l i s r .
r.c
J ( J u r l t : r l r satn d t h c c o n t n t e r c i a ll . r j t e t . . 6
H c p r c s c r r t t . <a l v i e r r . r , fI ) : r r i s
at thc rirnc ir rras
srasst
ri's sr.urh arcidr.nr;rrir.
.hr,,e",;,;,
t c c n t l l - c e n t r r r \u r l t a n c t . n t r e .( J n c . .
T.
; ;, lll:3lt::1.::""ii::::
r . i er o 1 - p a r i as t
.rlc,ur.ccl
br tirat ol Batzar.He prro.jecrecl
.,,, ,"
.t
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r ) f c o c c u l ) i i t i ' ) 1r1r i r l r a c c . c r i r r g. f r i : r r a r t : r L r e s
a.d ,ha ."puai,, to'at;,_
tlr)tllate,.\s thc den.rographer
L o u i r C : t , . . u l l " , lt , " . p o i n r e c l
our. Ba.lzac
d r t l n ( r t d e s c r i l r ta l l o l p r i r i s :
his parir,r",.,.r.,,,init, l:gur€ie6is..T5c
s r r c e t sI ) . .c i r c d u t . c l a r g c r )
t h o s . . i r h a ' i t e c r r r , , . - , - ' " iirr r r . c s r o r s
a n c rt r a d e s nl('r.) Ruc Sr Honori.
Ruc dt.s B.r,,r.l,rnnri.,,r.rd. arror.e
ail. Rue St
D c n i s . H i s c h a r a c r e r sr i s c
t h r o r r s h r h e s r r . n r au i : , h .
bur.q"oisie. His
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. , . r , b i , o 1a h o u s ei s a l o b e
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and gcnius: the {irst fltxrrshousc thc rrcll-filled stomar:}rs:ontlle sround
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and orrt of thcm.'t' He repeatedlr remarkccl orr thc corre'spondence
betu'een thc Parisian and his neighbourhoods. cchoins thc cighteenthc c n t u r v a x i o n t t l t a t t h e p a r t r c f l c c t st h c n ' h o l e . F o r i n s t a n r e .r n L a I e m m L
d r t r t n t t a r i r ' l h e \ \ ' o m a n o f T h i r t r ' , . h e r l r o t e : ' T I . r e r n f l u c n c cc x e r c i s c d
bv the localitl on thc soul is a lcmarkable thing':r'alrd in Fcrragu.s:
I r i P a r i st h c d i { l t ' r c n tt v p e sc o n t r i b u t i n gt o t i r c p l r r ' i o u n o r l i o f a n r p o r t i o r to i '
tcr ol tltr tn.rtmhlt.
t h a t m o n s t r o u sc i t Y h a r n o n i z c a d m i r a b h r f i t h t h t ' r ' h a r a <
'l'hus.
t h e c o n c i e r g c d. o o r k e e p e ro r h a l l p o r t c r . t r ' h ; t t t ' r ' ctrh t ' I r a m c g i v e n t c ,
t h i s e s s e n t i : rnl c r v c - s v s t e mi n t h e P a r . i s i a nn r o l l : t c l - .a l r r a r s c o t t l o r m st o t l l r '
q u : r r t c r i n u ' h i c h h e l u n c t i o n s .a r r d o f t c n s u n r si t u p . T h u r o n c i e r g eo f t h t '
F a u b o u r q S a i n t - G e r m a i n .l c a r i n g b r a i d o n e\ c r \ s c a m . a m a r t o f l ei s u r e.
s p e c u l a t c si n G o r c r n r n e l t s t c , c k st:h r : p o r t c r o f t h e C l h n u s s e e - {dn t i n e r r i o v s
h i s c r c a t u r r c o m l b r t s :h e o l t h e S t o c kl r x c h a n q .q u : r 1 1 e|rt ' a d sh i sn e \ \ \ p a p c r s :
r irc-n
p o r t e r si n t h c F a u b o u r q\ I o n t m a r t r c l o r k a t a r r a d c : i n t h e c l u a r t e g
o v e r t o p r o s t i t u t i o nt h e p o r t r e s sh c r s c l {i s a r e t i r c c lp r o s t i t u t e :i n t h e \ I a r r i s
q u a r t e r s h ci s r c s p e c t a b l cc, r o s s - g r a i n c da.r r d c r ( ) t ( ' l l c t \''j
l n L e : S p l r n l t u r s e t m i s i r t : d t . sc u u r l i s a r t t : A H a r l o t H i g l r a r r d L o r r
: r n o l l t c rc r a m p l e . o n e o I m a n r ' : ' \ \ ' h o c a n I : l i ] t o o b s c r rc t h a r I i n t h c r ' r u r l r
r o o m o f ' t h c B a l d e I ' O p i ' r a l a s i n c v c r r o t h c r z c ) n co f ' P a r i s .t h c r c i s a m o d c
o l ' b c i r r gr r l r i c h r c v e a l su h a t v o L ra r c . u h a t \ o u ( l o . u h r : r e v o u c o r n c f r - o r . l
z r n d\ \ , h a t v o l l : t f r : t f t e r . ' r 1
'I'hiltecn
H i . s t o i r ed e s t r t i a t H i s r o r v o { ' t h c
b r : s i r . t sr r i t h a n c r o c a t i o n
o 1 ' t h cp h v s i o g n o r n ro l ' t i r ec i t r ' : ' T h e s t l e e t so f ' P a r - i hs : r v ch u m a n q u a l i t i c s .
a n d s u c h a p h v s i o g n o m v a s l c a v c s u s u i t h i r . n p r r : s s i o nasg a i n s t r l h i c h r r c
'fhose
c a n p u t u p n o r e s i s t a n c et' j.
r l h o s ; r v r . r Ll r' ar r i s ' a r c s o l a m i l i a r l i t l r
its phvsiognomv that the\- knor. its ever\' \\'arl. evcrv spot or blotch on
i 1 sI h c L ' ' . . , 6
I l a l z a c i n t e r s c r : t r : dl . r i sa n a t o m v a n d t o p o e l a p h v o l c i t r l i f e n i t h t h c
v e l t i c a l a x i s o f s o c i a l s t a r u s .H t ' e x p l o r t ' c l s o c i a l p r o m o t i o n a s o n c o f r h e
'Parisian
s a l i e n t c h a r a c l c r i s t i c so l ' t h e B o u r b o n R e s t o r i r t i o n .I r r
phrsioqnonrics'. the opening seclion of Lo Fillt az\-frrr\ d'ur. BaIzac describcd
f i n e l r d i s t i n s u i s h e d c l a s - .d i f l e r c n c c s o f ' b e h a r i c i u r . T h t ' r c i s . l o r i n s t : r n c t ' .
t h e s m a l l s h o p k t : r p c r .r ' o r k i n q h i s n : r v u p . n h o
t a k c sh i s p a t r i o t i s n r c a d r - m a d el r o n r l h e n e \ \ ' s p a p e r. .. . l t , t , a l ; t a - te' t l l t n
mimingmirth, grief, pilt. astonishmtnl.
at produtinqcotitntionalcritt or rtntaiinq
m u t el r t a f i c sm i n e l . a s h e s t a n d sb v t o t a k eo n a n r r o l e a r t h e O p e r a e l e r r o r h e r
c v c r t i n g .. . . H i s c : h i l d r e na r e r e c r u i t c d i n t o t h c c l a s . i m m c d i a t e l r a b o l c .
. . . C ) f t e nt h e v o u n g c rs o n o f a s r n a l lr c t n i l e r a s p i r c st o a p o , r i t i o ni n t i r c c i r i l
s r : r v i c e . . . I h a t k i n d o f a r r b i t i o n l ; r i n q s o u r a t t e n t i o n t o r h e r e c o n do l t h c
s p h e r e so f P a r i s .T h e r c v o u r v i l i : c c r h e s a m er e s u l t .\ \ - h o l c - s a lnec r c h a n r - \a n d
t h c i r s t a f l . g o v t r n m c n t e m p k i v c c s s. r n a l lb a n k t - r ,o. l q r c a t i n t c e r i t r . b a i l i f l l .
28
s o l i c i r o r sn. o t a r i e s c. l e r k s :i n s h o r t .t h e b u s t l i n g ,s c h c m i n g s. p e c u l a t i n gm e m _
b e r so f t h a t l o u ' c r m i d d l e c i a s s . : 'fhis
p o r t r a i t o f r h e m o e u r ro 1 ' t h e p e t i t b o u r g e o i s d e r i v e s i n l o r m b o t h
l r o m B u f f o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a n i m a l s p c c i e sa n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s o f '
La Bru'ire. It is a rcport on thc ph'siologr'. habits and inclinations ofthe
q c n u s . ' f v p i c a l l r ' . t h e p c t i t b o u r s e o i s b e l o l r g sr o r h e N a t i o n a l G u a r d . h a s
a plot at the Pdre Lachaise cemctcr\'. hires a carriage lor a Sundal,dri'e
in the counrr'*'ith his n'ifi: and childrcn. goes to the Thdatre Italien at
night. At fiftr'. rvhen their children arc marricd, he and his wile set a
third-tier box at the opcra. go to the Lonschamps raccsin a hired cab and
w e a r s o m e u . h a t l a d c d c l o t h e s o n t h e b o u l e v a r d . A t s i x t l , _ f i r - e .h e i s
a w a r d e d t h e C r o s so f t h e L c g i o n o f H o n o u r . H i s c h i l d r e n m e a n t i m e h a , , . e
risen to thc ranks of thc upper bourgeoisie. ,Thus. each social sphere
p r o J e c r si t s s p a u ' n i n t o t h c s p h e r c i r n m e d i a t e l ' a b o ' e i t , T h e r i c h g r o c e r , s
s o n b e c o m e s a r . ] o t a r \ ' .t h e t i m b e r m e r c h a n t ' s s o . b e c o m e sa m a g i s t r a t e .
N o t a c o g l a i l s t o f i t i n t o i t s g r o o r . e a n d e v e r r - t h i n gs t i m u l a t e s t h e u p u , a r d
march olmoner'. ,'
O n t h e n e x t l e v e l . t h c r e a r e t h c b u s i n e s sm e n . i a * . r . e r s , b a r r i s t e r s ,
bankers. rraders on a grand scale and doctors. Here. Balzac agreed u,irh
\ I o r c a u ' s c l u e s t o p h ' s i c a i . m o r a l a n d a e s t h e t i cc o n s c q u e n c e os f c e r t a i n
profcssions:
\ \ ' h a r c o u n t e n a n c ec a n r c t a i n i t s b c n u r \ i n t h c d c b a s i n gc x c r c i s eo f a p r o _
I b s s i o nr r h i c h c o m p c l sa m a n r o b e a r t h e b u r d e n o f p u b r i c m i s e r i e s,,o
nily."
t h e r n .x c i g h t h e m . a p p r a i s r t h e m . b : i t t c n o n t h e m l . . . t h e v n o l o n g" e
rf e e l .
r h i : r 'm e r e l r a p p l r . r u l e s r t h i c h a r c s t u l t i f i c db r . p a r t i c r r i a rc a s c s . . A n d s o
t h c i r l a c c sp r e s e n tt h c r a * p a l l o r . t h c u n n a t u r a l c o l o u r i n g .t h c l a c k - l u s t r e
c v t : sr l i t h r i n q s r o u n d t h c m . t h e s c n s u a l .b a b b l i n g m o u r h s b v u , h i c h a n
o l r s e r v a r )pte r s o nr e c o e n i z etsh c s rm p t o n r so f t h c d e t e r i o r a t i o no f r h o u g h t .a n d
i t s r o t a r i r n * i t h i n a n a r r . r . c i r c l c o f i d c a sc a l c u l a t c dt o d c s t r o r . t h ei a c u l t i e s
o f t h e b r a i n a n d t h e e i f t l b r s e e i n qr h i n g si r r o a d l r 'l.b r g e n e r a l i z i n g
anddrawing
i n l c r e n c c sr e.
Of the 'idle' rich he rr'rotc:
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n i t h t h e u n e n d i n q r o u n d o 1 ' P a r i sr e c e p t i o n s a
. ll lcave their mark on the
l e a t u r e sa n d p r o d u c e t h e s ep a - s t e - b o a rf ci rlr : c st.h o s ep r e m a t u r ew r i n k l e s .
that
r i r h m a n . p h r . i o s 1 1 6 6o1n r rl r i c hi m p n r e n c rh a . . " i i r . g r i m a c . . o o
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*
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that social
m o b i l i t v h a s p r o d u c e d a u ' o r l d o l ' i n f i n i r e n u a n c e s , .p r e ' i o u s l v . , t h e
caste
s v s t e mg a v e e a c h p e r s o n a p h 1 ' s i o g n o m Yr r , h i c h r v a s m o r e
important than
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s c el a t e r . t o J ) r c s c n tt h e e l l i ' c t so f s o c i c n o n l l ) . i l ) d i v i d u a l : p h v s i o g n o n l i c
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c en t u r v I ' r a n c c S t c n d h a l ' s L t R o u g r,' l h n a i r . G c o r q c S a n d ' s ^ 8 1 11r 11 r l .
F l : r i i b c r t ' . E d u c a l i a n; i n l i m e n l a l t a l l c o t r s t i t t r r c a r a d c - l : ' t t -u<n l o l t l p e s .
p e o p l e a n d s i t n a t i o n st o c L l l t i v a t ea n d a ' , , r i d .a p p r o P r i a t c b c l ] a | i o l r r a n d
d t ' c c t r u r ni n a V a r i e t Y o f c r 1 ' c r . l m s t a n c c s .
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s t r a i n i n g a g a i n s tt h c h u n t a : r s e n l j n t c n t sa t l d I h n r r l . f c c l i n q l i t h r r ' h i c hl l e
a r r i t c d l r o r n t h c p r o l i n c e : . T l r t V i c o n r t c d c B c a u s t l a n ta l s o a d v i s c s
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a n d t o i l r o p p o s i t t ' .J ) h r c n c ) l o g \\.\ l t o s e e v i d e n t r ' c a n n o t b c m o d i l i e d l l l
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t r a n . l a t c d i n t o F r c r t c h i n I B r B a n d l c t t ' t r . , r c l . l r B a l z : r ca n d o t h c l r l o \ ' . l i . t r
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t ' r J r r t s : i o r r . +( J r r l r a c l o r . r r ' 1 ' t r : r i r ) r ' atli , I t t : t t t i P u l : t 1 t ' t h c i rl t 1 > p c a r a l l t r
t l r o r o r t g h l r . c o t t r i n r i t t q . l vt o c ( ) r r \ . e va c l t a r : t c t t l L t t l l i k ct h c t n . e l v r ' t . I t l
. \ i l t l r n r l t u rLs' ln t i t t t l t \ ( o u r l i . \ r u t tc) r c r r \ - : r t t t | i n . i l l : i n t t n q r t a r c l c dt t . t o l t l c t l i .
r ( ' \ a r r : t o l t i : c o n r i t t ' s d l n a t t h , 'a t L c il s r e t t t q n i z c c li r r a t t r t i c ia s : r l c i a t c .
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r i , r r r , ll r i .r , \ \ l P r ) l ( ' r l ) r ' i . r :
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r r a s r l n o t n c a r ' { ( a r v l ( ) i l I ) i l l \ \ r ' . a l ; , . t tl t c t a n c l c l a ' i i 1 \ ?
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rhose rrlto lrr:ljcrl in pcrli'Ltibilitr. c;ur.1u(l\ ta, al)[)rar arnia]llc.qr;tcirrLt..
r v t L l - b r c c lc. d L r ( a t e ( I i.n r t c r L r ol i r u l g a r . s t L r p i d .b o r i r t q . . . . . \ l r d i : 1 h i : n o t t l l r '
m o s t i u p r i r t a n t t h i n g i n a I ) a 1 i o n\ l h o s e m o t L o i s A l l l i r r c l i . p l e r ' ? ' n
Balzac der cloped :r sct of axiotns: tht l alk anllounce s rhc mall: gcstrlre
is thc,rrght itt irction. br uhich
ont c:rn dccilther vice. renlot'sc.sicknes':
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l t o a n i n c l e p c n d c n l_ \ c r n i r h < ' P i t , ' t t i , , 1 4 i ^ r r h i c r L .r r a d e r t h c l c a d l r s h i p , f t h r .
. i c r i i r r a l i . c i cg r ' . r ' c
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draughtsmen o{ the dav. This literaturc began in thc rB3os,reachcd its
peak in the earll' rB4osand subsidcd iu the rB5os.
T h e r a n g e o f i t s a u d i e n c e . t h o u g h s t i l l s o n r e r v h a ta m a t t e r o f ' c o n j e c t u r e .
can be inlerred liom novels. caricatures and illurtrations rvhich sho*'
p e o p l e a s c o n s u m e r so 1 ' r h i sl i t e r a t u r e , a s u e l l a s l i ' o r n t h e m a t e r i a l i t s e l l .
T h e i r s u c c e s sd e p e n d e d o n t h e a u t h o r s a \ \ ' a r c n e s s o f t h e i r r e a d c r s '
a m b i t i o n s , f a n t a s i e s ,f e a r s a n d L r n c e r t a i n t i e s a
. nd in its vcrnacular rccogn i z a b i l i t v . T h c P h , l t i o l o . g i thsa d a p r c c u r - . o r i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f d e c o r u n . r
'book'
t h e C o d e . rJ. ' h e s e r v e r e a d m o n i t o r v a n d h u m o r o u s
of rules' {br
c a t i n g . l o r c o n v e r s a t i o n .f o r l o v e a n d m a r r i a g c . a n d f o r t h e t r a ' , ' e l l c r .T h e v
n'ere mostlv published bctrveen rBr5 and rB3o. under such title-.as: Cade
Parisien. .IIanuel compltt du protincittl et dt ['llrangtt i Pari.t,ctntenant!cs loi:.
riglts. apltlitotionset ttamples de l'art de titrc don.;((ttt .apilale. san.ritre dupi ct
d e s ' - ra r n u s edr p e u d cJ i a i s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c x a m p l e . b r C h a r l e s R o u s s e r .
s'as a satire ofsocial life that cotrtaincd practical advice for thc tourist in
P a r i s . n i t h a n e c d o t e sd e a l i n g \ f i t h c u s t o m s ,m a n n e r s a n d b e a r i n g . T h c
u ' r i t e r r e c o m m c n d c d t o r h e v i s i t o r n o t t o b e t o o e x p r e s s i v ea b o u t h i s i m p r c s s i o n s :d o n ' t g a p e : d o n ' t r n i m c r ' , r u r i m p r e s s i o n s :f o l l o l ' t h c n e l
m a n n e r o f t h e a t r e a u d i e n c c s * h o d o n ' t a p p l a u d c - x c e s s ei rl i : d o n t a s , s u m e
a i r s i h e a d h i g h , n o s ei n t h e a i r : a n h o n c s t a n d m o d e : t l r e a r i n gi : t h e s i q n
o f a g o o d e d u c a t i o n : t h e o b j e c t o 1 ' a . j o u r n e ri s t o n o r i c c .n o t t o b e n o t r c c d .
y o u l ' c o J [ u r n er r ' i l l a n v r r a v i d c n t i f r ' \ ' o u a s a s t r a n g c r : i f v o u n ' a r r ra v i c l
o f t h e ' p e t u l a n t f r i v r r l i n ' 'o f t h c P a r i s i a np o p t r l a t i o n .g o t o t h e T u i l c r i c s i n
the alicrnoon; elcrvone should go to a cafi. but stav onlv halt'an hour:
t h e i i s h i o n a b l e t h i r l g t o d o a t a b a r l Ji s r o s r a v a t o n c ' s t a b l e . e n e a g e i n
g c n c r a l c o n v e r s a t i o l . ra, n d r t o t d a r r c e . . \ n d s o o n .
T h e d e - q c r i p t i cr . P h t s i o / o g i t : \ r ' ( - - r cl r r o r c p o p u l a r
little paperbound
monographs on Parisian occupational and avocational tvpes that floodtd
t h c b o o k s t a l l sb e t l l e c n r 8 4 r ; r n d r 8 4 3 . T ' h e i r I o g u e i n r h e s er c a r s r r a s
s p e c t a c n l a r . . \ r ' c r s ei n [ . e C l t a r i i o r i r a n :
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O n t i t t t se n b n o n s
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h u n d r e d p a g e so 1 ' p r i n r .u e r e p u b r i s h e dp r i m a r i l r : b v
thc \Iaison Aubert.
p r i n t - s e l l c r s a n d p u b l i . s h e r so f t h e i i l u s t r a r c d n c r r s p a p c r s
L a c r a r i c a t u r ta n d
i t s s u c c c s s o r Z aC h a . r i t a r i t e b e d i s c l s s c d i n n t o r e d e r a i l
in Chapter Three .
Philipon. .{ubert's gcncrai cdit.r. rerained and
etrided a stablc ol'u.riters.
i l l u s t r a t o r s a r d c a r i c : r r u r i s r sr r o r . r h e r i e u s p a p t ' - r s .
crandr ilra, ouu.,ri"..
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illustrators: otl)ers
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b a s c c lo n t h e p l e m i s e t h a t . u n l i k c t h c m a j o r e v c n r s r e c o r d e d b v h i s t o r i a n s .
thc ol;servation and historv ol rvelrdar life nolrnallv llent unrecor.dcd.
'fhe
p u r p o s c o f ' t h c - s vc o l u n r e s .h c e x p i a i n e d .\ \ ' a st o p a s so n ' w h a t s o r t o f
meil \\e rrerc. and hol rle entplovcdour time'. As.Janin noted,'not a
v e a r p a s - s e dt h a t w o u l d n o t f u r n i s h m a l c r i a i s f o r a v o l u n r c o 1 - c h a r a c t e r s ' .
T h e p a s t s c c m c ' cei o l d e n b r c o m p a r i s o n t ' i t h t h e p r e s c n r : r ' e a l t h l ' b u t
cultured mcn had been replacedbv the'capitaiist of'rB4o'. a -speculator
a n c l a s o c i a l c l i r n b c r ' .I t u ' a s . r h c r t ' I b r e . ' r h e d L l t v o f r h c n . r i t e r o f ' t h e p r e s e n t
du)'... to describcrhc nerl roads ro {brtune: the Bank. the Exchange,
a d v c r t i s e m e n t s . p r o s p e c r u s e s ,j o i n t - s t o c k c o m p a n i e s . r i s e s a n d l a l l s .
disasterand bankruptcies, tlrc cndlessspeculationson norhing, on the
I ' a c u u m ' .i "
'France
had become "the Grand \atiorr of grocers"'. he continued:
r h e , . ep u b l i c a t i o n - . a J u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r s u c c e s sa n d o f t h e c l o s c
i n t e r c h a n s e b c t u ' e e n t h e t h e a t r c a n d t h e p o p u l a r p r e s so f t h e t i m e .
A f t c r t l - r ei n i t i a l s u c c e s so f t h e i n e x p c n s i v e p o c k e t v o l u m e s . s e v e r a lp u b l i s h e r si n v e s t e d i n g r a n d e r l o r m a t s : b o u n d o m n i b u s v o l u m e s . t o t ' h i c h t h e
same group o{'rvritcrs and illustrators contributed, which appealed to a
'settlcd' audience. and u'hich n'picalll would be dismore affiuent and
plaved in thc drarvinq room.r4 Such a publication t'as L. Curmer's eight'
. se i n t sp a r e u Y - m i m e''t B 4 o - z . J J. q ,c o n t e m p o r a r v c o m v o l u m e L e sF r a n S a ip
pendium ofcharacters'in the manner ofLa Brufire', it depicted'our
persons, habits, customs, and tastes'. In his introduction, Jules Janin
o b s e r v e d t h a t i n t h e p a s t , w h e n s o c i e t l h a d b e e n m o r e c o h e s i v e ,a s i n g l e
p e r s o nc o u l d e n g a g ei n i t s a n a l v s i sa, s L a B r u v i r e h a d d o n e ; b u t i n c r e a s i n g
'this
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thousand and one varied acts'.r6
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panarama
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t h c C l h a r t e ro l I B 3 o ' c r e a t e d a m o n q u s a l l e n t i r e l \ n e u s c t o { ' c h a r a c t e r s .
o i ' s t r : i n g r i r n d i n c r c d i b l e m a n n e r s . l ' h e t o n c \ \ a s o l l c o f i n t e l l e c t u a ld i s a p p o i r t t m e n t a n d d i s a f f e c t i o n n ' i t h s o c i e t r ' .. f a n i n e x p l i c i t l v c o n t r a s t e d L a
Bruvire's tvpcs u,ith contemporar\ onc-s:a more caustic form ol'descrip-
a s t r a i g h t l b r u a r d : r c c o u n t o f s t r e e t s .n c i g h b o u r h o o d s , l a \ \ ' c o u r t s , m c c l i c a l
a n d l a l r ' - . c h o o l s . a r t . i s t ' sa t e l i e r s . t h t a t r e s . d e p a r t m r , n t s t o r c s . c a r n i r . a l s .
p r i s o n s . c a b a r r - . t sb, a l l s a r r d p a r k s . H e d e i i g h r c d i n r h e n c h p h v s i o l o g i c a l
'Phvsiognomr.and
d er a i l o f t h e c i n :
p h r s i o l o g r ' .i n d i v i d u a l a n d c o l l c c t i v e . t h e r n ; r s sa n d r h c d e t a i l s : t h i s p l o e r a n r m e i s c o n t i n u o u s l r . d e l . e l o p i n g
a n d a l t ' a v s n c r ' . f r o m t h e v i e r r , p o i n t so f a t h o u s a n d o f s e r v e r s ; e r . c r 1 ,
h u r - n a nb c i n g u , i t h c v e s a r r d . j u d q n . r t n rr v i l l m a k e h i s o u n n e r v a n d o r i g i n a l
d i s c o v e r r ' .b u t t h e c x a c t p l a n r t i l l n e r c r l ) r c o m p l r t c . ' j ,
P a r a d o x i c a l l v .l h c n H a u s s m a n n a n d N a p o l c o n b e g a n r o i m p o s c t h c i r
partoramic dcsign on thc citv in r854. the bird's-cve vieu. Iost most of its
r ,i s u a l d r a m a a n d t i c c a m e b a r d h m o r e t h a n o l f i c i a l p r o p a g a n d a . r c v e a l i n s
l i t t l e m o r e ' t h a n l h a r H a u s s r n a n nh a d i n t e n r i o n a l l l p u t t h e r e . B c t b r e
t l . r e n .i t h a d a f i b r d c d t h e R o m a n t i c p l e a s u r e r , r 1 ' ap r i v i l e e c d c o m m a n d
o v e r r e c i r l c i t r a n r . u n p l a r r n c d m a r e r i a l : B a u d e l a i r e ' s f. o u r m i l ! a n t et i t l a n d
Balzac's organisrn'. l'he plcasures - 'derrronic'. rapacious, r.ovcuri.stic
o l s c i c r r t i f i c o f ' d i s c o v t ' r i n gh i d d c ns r r u < : t u r c sl .i k c t h o s e o f \ a t u r e , a r c l o s t
r v h e n t h c s p e c t a c l ci s a d c l i b t r a t e a r r c f a c t . ' , .
t i o r t r r e . n o \ \ ' i r l ) p r { ) p r i . l t.(
A n c r t h e r p L r b l i < : a t i o ni n t h i s g e n r e \ \ ' a s i 1 t \ 1 o - \ ' . J I u m ec o m p e n d i u m o f
P a r i sa n d P a r i s i a nl i { e i l l u s t r a t i n g ' o u r p h v s i o q n ( ) m \ 'o. u r g e s t u r e .a n d o u r
c o s t u n r e s 'L. t D t n b l t d P a r i : . P a r i r t l l r sp a t t t i , ' n : I B 4 5 6 . e d i t c d b v J u l e s
' \ I a n n c r c a n d c o s t u n l e s .c h a r a c t c r a n d
Hetzel. It carried the subtitle:
portraits of thc inhalritants o1'Paris: completc picturc of their'lives:
. t c . et c . ' A m o n g t h c
p r i l : r t e , p u b l i c . p o l i r i t : a l .a r t i s t i c .l i t e r a n . i n d u s t : ' i a l e
contributors rtcle Cieolec Sand. Charlcs Nodier. Euginc BriffaLrlt.
B a l z a c . A l p h o n s c K a r r . G t r r a r d d t ' N c r v a l . ^ \ r s i t r c H c r u s s a v c .T h € o p h i l e
G a u t i e r a n d A l l r c d d e \ I u s s e t . G a v a r n i d r e u a s c r i e so l c a r i c a t u r e s f t r r
t h c s e v o l u m e s . L e s g e n sd t P a r i s , i n c l u d i n g : P h i l o s o p h t : :S t r e e t T v p e s . f r l
('arnaral. Presenteas et pttt.rtnlt:.r.Hantm,:.tel .limmt's dt plume \Ien and
\ \ ' r r r n en \ \ ' r - i t c r s . B a u r g t o i s ,A r t i . ; t e ,P
s .e t i l s C o r n m t r c t : S m a l l T r a d e s . a n d
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cNposc: it bt'girrsrrith straiglttlorrlard accolrnts ol the hi.torv and
e c o g r a p l r r o 1 ' P a l i s a n d c n ( i s u i t h g o l e r t r n r c t t t: t : r t i s t i c sr r n p o p u l a t i o t r .
l i n a n c c . p r o f r , ' s i o n s .c r i r n i n a l i t r . : c h o o l i n g a n d p o v e r t r . T h c c r r r e o f t l . r c
b o o k c o t r s i s l<s - r f c n t r : t ' t a i t r i tct rqI.t i c a l i l c c o i l l l t so l c t t s t o t t . at :r t d i n . t i t u t i o r t s .
s u c : l ar s t b e C l h a r r r b c or f ' l ) e p u t i e si r n ( i t l r e P a l a c t o f . ] u , . t i c . t h o t r q l l( a r e l L r l l vn c r c r c r o s s i n gt i r c I i n c , r f ' c c r t s o r s l i i p. t h t . J o c k e r f i l u b . t h r c t ' r r r e -l
t e r i c s . t h c : r t r c s .t a r n i r z r h a n d b a l l s . h c l e i s a s L l l r qo l 1 i n d i f f c r e t r c e . : r n d a
s a r l i a g e b r \ l o n n i e r ' . I t t a n i l l t t s t r a t e ds c c t i o nc n t i t l c d
s a t i r co f l ) o r r r g c o i m
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o n e g r e c t si n P a r r s ' .B . P a s c a ln o t e d :
l ; e g i n s u i t i r a b l l l t t ' . a n d s r r e q e i t c dt h a l o n e c o u i d r r r i t e a h i s t o r r o i '
P a l i s i : r ns o c i e n b l p r o v i d i n e a c h r o n o i o g i c a la c c o u n l o f f o r m s o f g r c r t tng.'8
S i x r c a r s l a t t r ' . a s t r l l r n o r c a n r ) r i t i o t r s l it l l r r s t r a t e dl r r ' o - r ' o l u m es ' o r k .
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d e P o r i r r P , , - t 2I . n a : p t r b l i r h e d r t ' i t h t . ' , o o e n g r a r i t t g - s .
sontc rcproduced liorn the vigncttes it It Dtnllt d Pati:. and sonre lrom
t h c v a r i ( ) u \ c a r i c a t u l t - j o u r n a l s a n d i l l L t s r r a r e ctl t t r r ' s p a p e r s .T h e | l - o n t i s I ) i e ( L S h o \ r sa p a r ) o r a m a o l ' t h c c i t r a n d . i r r h i \ t c \ t . T e r i c r p u n n e d o n
o t l r c r p o p u l a r u s c so 1 ' t h c s r r l h x r a m a ' : t h c d i o r a m a . t h e p a n o r a m a . t h e
q e o r a n . l i t .t h e n e o r a m a . t h c n a v a l o r : t m a . I n P i t e G t t t i o t t h c s t u d e n t s i t l
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j u s t b e l i , r e t h e c i r r u a s r c d c s i g n e da n d e x p a n d e d b r N a p o l e o n I I I a n d
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