Seder Tu-B`shvat

Transcription

Seder Tu-B`shvat
‫בס"ד‬
Tu BiShvat Seder
ORIGINS AND INTRODUCTION
‫ כדברי בית‬,‫ באחד בשבט ראש השנה לאילן‬...‫ארבעה ראשי שנים הם‬
)1:1 ‫ (מסכת ראש השנה‬.‫ בחמשה עשר בו‬:‫ בית הלל אומרים‬.‫שמאי‬
The four new years are... On the first of Shevat, the new year
for the trees according to the House of Shammai; The House
of Hillel says, on the fifteenth thereof. (Rosh Hashanah 1:1)
Until the immigration of the Kabbalists to Tzfat (northern Israel) in the
16th Century, this day was celebrated more as a legal date of separating
this year’s tithes from the previous years’ during the time that the
Temple stood in Jerusalem. This day began the new calculating of the
Ma’asrot (tithes) for the coming year.
"With Tu Bishvat Near, a Tree Grows in Zichron Yaakov",
Haaretz, 25/1/13
The tradition of planting trees on Tu Bishvat, the Jewish equivalent of Arbor
Day, was started back in 1890 by [Rav] Ze’ev Yavetz, a school principal in
Zichron Yaakov...
Yavetz, who came from an affluent family, was born in Poland in 1847. In 1887,
at the age of 40, he moved with his family to Palestine, where he initially
worked in the agricultural settlement of Yehud, before being recruited by the
Baron Edmond James de Rothschild, the founder and patron of Zichron Yaakov,
to serve as principal of the settlement school (which today bears his name). In
his first year as principal, Yavetz took his students on an excursion into town to
plant trees on Tu Bishvat, and the practice eventually caught on, later to be
adopted by the Jewish Teachers Union and the Jewish National Fund. To this
day, the JNF holds huge tree-planting ceremonies around the country on Tu
Bishvat.
While living in Zichron Yaakov, Yavetz was asked to join the Hebrew Language
Council, established in 1890 by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, and he is credited with
several contributions to modern Hebrew vocabulary, among them tarbut
(culture) and kvish (road). He eventually left the settlement, though, after a
fallout with the baron, and moved back to Europe, first to Vilna and from there
to London, where he died. In 1902, while in Vilna, Yavetz became one of the
founding members of the religious Zionist Mizrahi movement.
1
‫בס"ד‬
‫ נטעי הארץ אשר נטע ה' לאבותינו לשבוע מטובם ולהתענג‬,‫למען חבב את הנטעים‬
‫הספר לעשות יום טוב את היום אשר נועד מימי קדם בישראל‬-‫ יש לבית‬,‫מיופיים‬
,‫ הנטעים‬,‫ את העצים‬,‫ ברוב חן והדר‬,‫ לערוך בו במערכת‬,‫לראש השנה לאילנות‬
‫ תרנ"א‬,"‫ רבעון "הארץ‬,‫ הרב זאב יעבץ‬.‫השושנים‬
For the love of the plants, the plants of the Land which Hashem planted for
our forefathers to be satisfied from their goodness and to enjoy their beauty,
the school must make a Holiday of the ancient day which was set aside as the
New Year for Trees, and to entrench in the [school] system, with great joy,
the [planting of] trees, plants, roses. Rav Zeev Yavetz, "HaAretz"
Quarterly, 1891
THE MIRACULOUS REVIVAL OF THE
LAND OF ISRAEL TODAY
‫ ח) ואתם הרי ישראל‬,‫ואמר רבי אבא אין לך קץ מגולה מזה שנאמר (יחזקאל לו‬
).‫ענפכם תתנו ופריכם תשאו לעמי ישראל וגו' (סנהדרין צח‬
‫ כשתתן ארץ ישראל פריה בעין יפה אז יקרב הקץ ואין לך קץ מגולה‬- ‫מגולה מזה‬
).‫ (רש"י על סנהדרין צח‬:‫יותר‬
And Rabbi Abba said: You do not have a more obvious end [of days] than
this, as it is said (Ezekiel 36, 8): "But ye, O mountains of Israel, ye shall
shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to My people Israel; [for
they are at hand to come.]" (Sanhedrin 98a)
When the Land of Israel yields its fruit abundantly, then the end is near,
and there is no clearer indication of the end than this. (Rashi on Sanhedrin
98a)
)‫לב‬:‫יכם ַה ּי ְֹּשבִׁ ִ֖ים ָּ ָֽׁב ּה׃ (ויקרא כו‬
ֶ ֶ֔ ֵ‫איְ ב‬
ֹּ ָֽׁ ‫ֶ֙יה‬
ֶ֙ ָ ֶ‫ת־האָ ֶָ֑רץ וְ ָש ְָֽׁמ ֤מ ּו ָעל‬
ָ
‫וַ הֲ ִׁש ּמֹּתִׁ ִ֥י אֲ ִׁנִ֖י ֶא‬
I will make the Land desolate, so that it will become desolate [also] of
your enemies who live in it. (Vayikra 26:32)
‫ היא בשורה‬,‫ ושממו עליה אויביכם‬:)‫וכן מה שאמר בכאן (בפסוק לב‬
‫ וגם זו ראיה‬,‫טובה מבשרת בכל הגליות שאין ארצנו מקבלת את אויבינו‬
‫ כי לא תמצא בכל הישוב ארץ אשר היא טובה‬,‫גדולה והבטחה לנו‬
‫ כי מאז יצאנו‬,‫ורחבה ואשר הייתה נושבת מעולם והיא חרבה כמוה‬
.‫ וכולם משתדלים להושיבה ואין לאל ידם‬,‫ממנה לא קבלה אומה ולשון‬
(‫ ויקרא פרק כ"ו פסוק לב‬,‫)רמב"ן על התורה‬
2
‫בס"ד‬
“[This verse] comforts us with the realisation that during all our exiles,
our Land will not be hospitable to our enemies. This is another strong
proof for eventual redemption, and a promise to us, that nowhere on
earth is there another land as fertile and as welcoming as the Land of
Israel, which has been in a state of ruin for such a long time. For since
the time we left it, it has not accepted any other people. They have all
tried to settle it, but to no avail.”
(Ramban on Vayikra 26:32)
... A desolate country whose soil is rich enough, but is given over wholly to
weeds… a silent mournful expanse…. a desolation…. we never saw a human
being on the whole route….
The pilgrims took what was left of the hallowed ruin, and we pressed on
toward the goal of our crusade, renowned Jerusalem.
The further we went the hotter the sun got, and the more rocky and bare,
repulsive and dreary the landscape became. There could not have been more
fragments of stone strewn broadcast over this part of the world, if every ten
square feet of the land had been occupied by a separate and distinct
stonecutter's establishment for an age. There was hardly a tree or a shrub
anywhere. Even the olive and the cactus, those fast friends of a worthless soil,
had almost deserted the country. No landscape exists that is more tiresome to
the eye than that which bounds the approaches to Jerusalem. The only
difference between the roads and the surrounding country, perhaps, is that
there are rather more rocks in the roads than in the surrounding country...
Palestine is desolate and unlovely. And why should it be otherwise? Can
the curse of the Deity beautify a land? Palestine is no more of this work-day
world. It is sacred to poetry and tradition--it is dream-land.
Mark Twain, The Innocents Abroad (1867)
Until today no people has succeeded in establishing national dominion in
the land of Israel… No national unity or spirit of nationalism has acquired any
hold there. The mixed multitude of itinerant tribes that managed to settle
there did so on lease, as temporary residents. It seems that they await the
return of the permanent residents of the land.
Sir John Dawson, Modern Science in Bible Lands (1888)
3
‫בס"ד‬












Wheat (this can be cookies, etc)
Olives
Dates
Grapes or raisins
Figs
Pomegranates
Citrus fruits (Etrog, orange, etc)
Apples
Walnuts
Almonds
Carobs
Any other fruits/new fruits
WHEN TU BISHVAT FALLS ON SHABBAT
If Tu BiShvat coincides with Shabbat, the best thing to do is to eat the fruits
after Birkat HaMazon (Grace after Meals), not after Kiddush, in order to save
one's appetite for the meal. Neither should one eat the fruits in the course of
the meal, because this is liable to lead to uncertainty about blessings. Blessing
over fruit after the meal is not considered a "berakha she-eina tzrikha"
(unnecessary blessing) because one is supposed to recite many blessings on
Shabbat (see Rambam).
If a person buys untithed fruits or questionably tithed fruits, he should make
sure to tithe them before Shabbat, because it is forbidden to tithe on Shabbat.
4
‫בס"ד‬
THE FIRST CUP – FALL-WINTER
Pour a glass of white wine to be placed on the table while individuals read about the
wheat, olives, dates, and raisins. The white wine symbolizes a farmer overlooking his
field during the barren winter months… we add red wine with each subsequent cup.
Because it is more appropriate to make the blessing over wine before making the
blessing over other foods or drinks, each individual should make the blessing over
the wine before eating the wheat and the rest of the foods.
:‫ בּ ורא ְּפ ִרי ַה ֶ ּגפֶ ן‬,‫להינ ּו ֶמלֶ ְך ָּהעולָּ ם‬-‫ א‬,'‫ָּ ּברו ְּך ַא ּ ָּתה ה‬
DO NOT finish the entire cup of wine until all foods in this section are eaten.
WHEAT - ‫חיטה‬
Wheat is the most basic staple food of humanity, but at the same time, it requires
large amounts of effort (from the time the seed is planted in the ground to the
final stages of it being permissible to eat as a nourishing substance).
Sometimes in life we must toil through the difficult or challenging times in
order to reap the benefits and nourishment that they will provide in the
end.
Each individual should make the blessing over the wheat product prior to eating
it.
:‫להינ ּו ֶמלֶ ְך ָּהעולָּ ם בּ ורא ִמיני ְמזונות‬-‫ָּ ּברו ְּך ַא ּ ָּתה ה' א‬
THE SHEHECHIYANU BLESSING
Prior to partaking in something new, whether it is a new food, piece of clothing, or
item, one must make a blessing thanking G-d for the opportunity to partake in the
new item
Throughout the Tu-BiShvat Seder, many of us will be partaking in new fruits that
have not been eaten in a long time. Anytime prior to eating the new fruit, one must
make the Shehechiyanu blessing – he can have in mind any subsequent new fruits that
he will eat throughout the Seder.
‫יענ ּו‬
ָּ ‫ש ֶהחיָּנ ּו וְ ִק ְי ּ ָּמנ ּו וְ ִה ִ ּג‬
ֶ ,‫להינ ּו ֶמלֶ ְך ָּהעולָּ ם‬-‫ָּ ּברו ְּך ַא ּ ָּתה ה' א‬
:‫לַ ְּז ַמן ַהזֶּה‬
5
‫בס"ד‬
OLIVES - ‫זית‬
Olive oil was used to light the menorah in the Temple in Jerusalem. The
Syrians, in their oppression of the Jewish people at that time (168 BCE),
attempted to smother out the lights of the menorah; the Hashmonayim (the
small group of Jews that lead the revolt against the Syrians) managed to find a
small jug of olive oil that miraculously burned for enough time to allow them
to produce additional oil. We must remember that no matter how oppressed we
may be as a nation, we must find ways of keeping the light of Torah and mitzvot alive
throughout the generations.
Make a bracha on the olive.
Have in mind that this bracha will cover all additional fruits one will eat during the meal:
:‫להינ ּו ֶמלֶ ְך ָּהעולָּ ם בּ ורא ְּפ ִרי ָּהעץ‬-‫ָּ ּברו ְּך ַא ּ ָּתה ה' א‬
DATES - ‫תמר‬
,‫ ולולביה להלל‬,‫ אין בה פסולת אלא תמריה לאכילה‬,‫מה תמרה זו‬
‫ שפעת קורות להקרות‬,‫ סנסנים לכברה‬,‫ סיבים לחבלים‬,‫חריות לסכוך‬
)‫ (בראשית רבה מא‬:‫ אין בהם פסולת‬,‫ כך הם ישראל‬.‫בהם את הבית‬
The palm tree has no waste, its dates are eaten, its lulavs are
used for prayer, its fronds for shade, its fibers for ropes, its
twigs for a sieve, and its beams for houses. Likewise the
people of Israel have no waste. (Bereshit Rabbah 41)
Be sure to cut the date open and to check for insects before eating it.
GRAPES - ‫ענבים‬
Unlike all of the other trees, the grape vine is the shortest. Nonetheless, we
sanctify every major event in the Jewish lifecycle over grape products. We
learn that external features are often not nearly as important as internal
features.
Just as grape products (i.e. wine) mature as they age, so do the
Torah and its sages. This is also true with individual growth
and development; the more Torah one learns, the more he
matures and develops into a more complete person.
6
‫בס"ד‬
Once all the foods in this section have been eaten, say the following and then drink
the cup of wine:
)‫יד‬:‫ (דברים יא‬:‫ירש ָך וְ יִ ְצהָ ֶר ָך‬
ְ ‫וְ אָ סַ פְ ָת ְדגָ נ ֶָך וְ ִת‬...
... and you will gather in your grain, your wine, and your oil. (Devarim 11:14)
)‫טו‬:‫ (תהילים קד‬...‫א ֱֹנוש‬-‫וְ יַיִ ן יְ ַש ַמח ְלבַ ב‬
“Wine gladdens the heart of man.” (Tehillim 104:15)
)‫יט‬:‫ (קהלת י‬... ‫וְ יַיִ ן יְ ַש ַמח חַ ִיים‬...
“Wine makes life joyful.” (Kohelet 10:19)
).‫אין שמחה אלא ביין (פסחים קט‬
“There is no joy except for wine.” (Pesachim 109a)
On Tu BiShvat we use wine to praise Israel
On Purim we use wine to wipe out Amalek
On Pesach we use wine to celebrate our redemption
‫הולְ ִׁכים ַה ּש ֹּו ְתלִׁ ים‬
ֹּ ‫ּ ָכ ְך‬
‫רֹּן ַּב ּלֵב וְ ֶאת ַּב ּיָד‬
‫ִׁמן ָה ִׁעיר ו ִּׁמן ַה ְּכפָ ר‬
‫ ִׁמן ָה ָהר‬,‫ִׁמן ָה ֵע ֶמק‬
‫ְ ּבט"ו ִׁ ּב ְשבָ ט‬
‫ְ ּבט"ו ִׁ ּב ְשבָ ט‬
?‫ ַה ּש ֹּו ְתלִׁ ים‬,‫אתם‬
ֶ ‫לָ ּ ָמה ָּב‬
‫צֹּר‬
ּ ַ‫נך ַה ַּק ְר ַקע וּב‬
‫רגומות ָס ִׁביב נ ְַח ּפֹּר‬
‫ֶּב ָה ִׁרים וּבַ ִּׁמיש ֹּור‬
‫ְ ּבט"ו ִׁ ּב ְשבָ ט‬
‫ְ ּבט"ו ִׁ ּב ְשבָ ט‬
?‫ ַה ּש ֹּו ְתלִׁ ים‬, ‫ַמה יְ הֵ א ּפֹּה‬
‫ָבוא ְ ּבכָ ל ּג ּ ָֻּמה‬
ֹּ ‫ְש ִׁתיל י‬
‫י ַַער ַעד יִׁ ְפרֹּש ִׁצלּ ֹּו‬
‫ַעל ַא ְרצֵ נ ּו עֲ גו ָּמה‬
‫ְ ּבט"ו ִׁ ּב ְשבָ ט‬
‫ְ ּבט"ו ִׁ ּב ְשבָ ט‬
7
‫בס"ד‬
THE SECOND CUP – WINTER-SPRING
Pour white wine again, but add a bit of red wine to symbolize the small seeds
that a farmer initially plants with the hopes of them blossoming into healthy
food.
DO NOT finish the entire cup until all foods in this section are eaten.
FIGS - ‫תאנה‬
The Yalkut Shimoni (Joshua 1) compares the Torah to a fig tree because unlike
other fruits, the fig is full edible (no pits, seeds, etc.) – the same applies to the
Torah, which is perfect in all its entirety:
,‫ תמרים יש בהם גרעינים‬,‫למה נמשלה תורה לתאנה אלא כל הפירות יש בהם פסולת‬
‫ כך דברי‬.‫ אבל תאנה כלה יפה לאכול‬,‫ רמונים יש בהם קליפין‬,‫ענבים יש בהם חרצנים‬
.‫תורה אין בהם פסולת שנאמר כי לא דבר רק הוא מכם‬
The Midrash (Bamidbar Rabbah 12:9) further compares how the fig
tree is picked in a gradual process unlike other fruit trees that are
harvested in a single harvesting – the Torah is also learned in
segments and over a long period of time (it is impossible to learn the
entire Torah in one sitting):
‫למה נמשלה תורה כתאנה שרוב האילנות הזית הגפן התמרה נלקטים כאחת והתאנה‬
‫נלקטת מעט מעט וכך התורה היום לומד מעט ולמחר הרבה לפי שאינה מתלמדת לא‬
.‫בשנה ולא בשתים‬
Be sure to cut open the fig and to check for insects before eating it.
POMEGRANATE - ‫רימון‬
)‫ג‬:‫ (שיר השירים ד‬.‫ְּ ּכפֶ לַ ח הָ ִר ּמ ֹון ַר ָ ּק ֵת ְּך ִמ ַּב ַעד ְּלצַ ּ ָמ ֵת ְּך‬
“Your temple (cheek) is like a half pomegranate split open behind your veil.” (Shir HaShirim
4:3)
‫אמר ר"ש בן לקיש אל תיקרי רקתך אלא ריקתיך שאפי' ריקנין שבך מליאין מצות כרמון‬
).‫(עירובין יט‬
R’ Shimon ben Lakish, says that we should not read the word
‫ רקתך‬as temple (cheek), but rather read it as ‫ריקתיך‬
(translation: your empty ones) – because even the ‘empty’ Jews
are filled with Torah and mitzvot (just like a pomegranate is
filled with seeds) (Eruvin 19a)
8
‫בס"ד‬
We must always remember that the essential element of the Jewish nation is its unity and we
must be extra careful to never neglect a fellow Jew based on the assumption that he is not
learned in Torah or practicing of the mitzvot; just as we can not see the seeds of the
pomegranate from the outside, so too can we never know the full extent of another’s good
deeds from his external appearances.
CITRUS FRUIT - ‫פירות הדר‬
The Torah teaches (Vayikra Rabbah 30:12) that the Four
Species we take on Sukkot each correspond to various types of
Jews. The Etrog, which has taste and smell symbolizes those
Jews that have both Torah learning and practice good deeds;
the palm branch has a taste but no smell, corresponding to
those Jews who are steeped in their Torah learning, but do not
practice good deeds; the myrtle branches have smell but no
taste, symbolizing those Jews who practice good deeds but are
not steeped in their Torah learning; and the willow branches
have no taste or smell, symbolizing those Jews who are neither
steeped in Torah learning or practice good deeds. On Sukkot,
we combine all these types together, and use them to serve
Hashem, singing songs of Hallel. Regardless of which type of
Jew one defines himself as, just as the Four Species are
rendered invalid if one of the species is missing, so too do we
learn that each and every Jew is indeed part of the Jewish nation and plays a
vital role in its completion.
‫ד "א פרי עץ הדר אלו ישראל מה אתרוג זה יש בו טעם ויש בו ריח כך ישראל יש בהם‬
‫בני אדם שיש בהם תורה ויש בהם מעשים טובים כפות תמרים אלו ישראל מה התמרה‬
‫הזו יש בו טעם ואין בו ריח כך הם ישראל יש בהם שיש בהם תורה ואין בהם מעשים‬
‫טובים וענף עץ עבות אלו ישראל מה הדס יש בו ריח ואין בו טעם כך ישראל יש בהם‬
‫שיש בהם מעשים טובים ואין בהם תורה וערבי נחל אלו ישראל מה ערבה זו אין בה‬
‫טעם ואין בה ריח כך הם ישראל יש בהם בני אדם שאין בהם לא תורה ולא מעשים‬
‫טובים ומה הקב "ה עושה להם לאבדן אי אפשר אלא אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא יוקשרו‬
‫כולם אגודה אחת והן מכפרין אלו על אלו ואם עשיתם כך אותה שעה אני מתעלה הה "ד‬
‫(עמוס ט ) הבונה בשמים מעלותיו ואימתי הוא מתעלה כשהן עשויין אגודה אחת‬
‫שנאמר (שם ) ואגודתו על ארץ יסדה לפיכך משה מזהיר לישראל ולקחתם לכם ביום‬
) ‫יב‬: ‫ (ויקרא רבה ל‬: ‫הראשון‬
APPLE - ‫תפוח‬
)‫ג‬:‫ְּכ ַת ּפוּחַ ַּבעֲ צֵ י הַ ּי ַַער ּ ֵכן דּ ֹּו ִׁדי ֵּבין ַה ָּבנִׁ ים (שיר השירים ב‬
“Just as the apple tree is [favored] amongst the rest of the
trees, so too is my beloved amongst [my other] sons.” (Shir
HaShirim 2:3)
9
‫בס"ד‬
‫א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא מ"ד כתפוח בעצי היער וגו' למה נמשלו ישראל לתפוח לומר‬
).‫לך מה תפוח זה פריו קודם לעליו אף ישראל הקדימו נעשה לנשמע (שבת פח‬
Why are the Jewish People compared to an apple tree – just as the apple tree
produces fruit before it produces leaves (the reverse order of all other fruit trees), so
too the Jewish People (reversed the natural order at Mt. Sinai and) proclaimed‫נעשה‬
and then ‫( נשמע‬We will do and we will listen!) (Shabbat 88a)
Once all the foods in this section have been eaten, say the following and then drink
the second cup of wine:
‫לאוכל ענבים‬--‫ למה הוא דומה‬,‫ הלמד מן הקטנים‬,‫רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה איש כפר הבבלי אומר‬
‫ ושותה יין‬,‫לאוכל ענבים בשלות‬--‫ למה הוא דומה‬,‫ ושותה יין מגיתו; והלמד מן הזקנים‬,‫קהות‬
‫ אפילו‬,‫ מלא ישן; וישן‬,‫ יש קנקן חדש‬:‫ אלא במה שיש בו‬,‫ אל תסתכל בקנקן‬,‫ רבי אומר‬.‫ישן‬
)‫כ‬:‫ (פרקי אבות ד‬.‫חדש אין בו‬
Rabbi Yossi, the son of Judah, says: "He who learns from the young, to what is he
compared? To one who eats unripe grapes and drinks wine from his vat. And he
who learns from the old, to what is he compared? To one who eats ripe grapes
and drinks old wine." R. Meir said, “Look not at the flask, but at what it contains;
there may be a new flask full of old wine and an old flask that has not even new
wine in it.” (Pirkei Avot 4:20)
)‫ד‬:‫ (שיר השירים ב‬.‫לו עָ לַ י אַ הֲבָ ה‬
ֹ ְ‫ ֵּבית הַ יָיִ ן וְ ִדג‬-‫ה ֱִביאַ נִ י אֶ ל‬
“He brought me into the House of Wine and his banner over me was love.” (Shir
HaShirim 2:4)
‫ט"ו ִב ְשבָ ט‬
‫חַ ג הַ י ֹום לַ ָגן‬
‫חַ ג לַ ֶפ ַרח‬
‫חַ ג לַ יַעַ ר‬
‫חַ ג ְלכָ ל ִאילָ ן‬
10
‫בס"ד‬
THE THIRD CUP - SPRING
Fill about ½ of the cup with white wine and ½ of the
cup with red wine. Now that the cup is more or less
the same amount of white and red color, we
remember that just like we depend on G-d for
sustenance, we can also depend on each other for
help and support.
As we have progressed in the Seder, the cup of wine
has become more and more red, symbolizing the hidden goodness in the fruits of the
trees as they begin blooming until they reach maturity.
DO NOT finish the entire cup until all foods in this section are eaten.
WALNUTS - ‫אגוזי מלך‬
‫אמר ר' ברכיה מה אגוז זה עשוי ארבע מגורות‬
‫והסירה באמצע כך היו ישראל שרויין במדבר ארבע‬
‫דגלים ארבע מחנות ואהל מועד באמצע הה"ד (במדבר‬
)‫יא‬:‫ (שיר השירים רבה ו‬.‫ב') ונסע אהל מועד‬
The Midrash (Rabbah, Shir Hashirim 6:11)
compares the walnut, with its four sections and
a middle, to the formations of the Jewish nation
when they travelled throughout the desert –
three tribes in each of the four directions with
the Tabernacle in the center.
ALMONDS - ‫שקדים‬
‫אַ ֲהרֹן ְלבֵּ ית‬-‫אֹהֶ ל הָ עֵּ דות וְ ִהנֵּה ָפ ַרח מַ ֵּטה‬-‫ֹשה אֶ ל‬
ֶ ‫וַ יְ הִ י ִמ ָמח ֳָרת וַ ָיבֹא מ‬
)‫כג‬:‫ (במדבר יז‬.‫לֵּ וִ י וַ יֹצֵּ א פֶ ַרח וַ יָצֵּ ץ ִציץ וַ ִיגְ מֹל ְשקֵּ ִדים‬
“The next day, when Moses came to the Testimony Tent,
Aaron’s staff, representing the house of Levi, had blossomed.
It had given forth leaves, and was [now] producing blossoms
and almonds were ripening on it.” (Bamidbar 17:23)
)‫ולמה שקדים הוא הפרי הממהר להפריח מכל הפירות (רש"י שם‬
Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo bar-Yitzchaki, 1040-1105) explains that almonds were ripening
on it because the almond tree is the quickest to sprout (it is the first tree to blossom
in spring).
11
‫בס"ד‬
,‫הַ ְשקֵּ ִדיָה פ ֹו ַרחַ ת‬
.‫וְ ֶשמֶ ש ָפז ֹזו ַרחַ ת‬
‫ִצפ ֳִרים מֵּ רֹאש ָכל ַגג‬
:‫רות אֶ ת ב ֹוא הֶ חָ ג‬
ֹ ‫ְמבַ ְש‬
!‫ט"ו ִב ְשבָ ט הִ ִגיעַ – חַ ג הָ ִאילָ ֹנות‬
.‫ט"ו ִב ְשבָ ט הִ ִגיעַ – חַ ג הָ ִאילָ ֹנות‬
:‫הָ אָ ֶרץ ְמ ַש ַועַ ת‬
!‫ִה ִגיעָ ה עֵּ ת לָ טַ עַ ת‬
,‫ָכל אֶ חָ ד יִ ַטע פֹה עֵּ ץ‬
:‫חוצֵּ ץ‬
ֹ ‫ְב ִא ִתים נֵּצֵּ א‬
!‫ט"ו ִב ְשבָ ט הִ ִגיעַ – חַ ג הָ ִאילָ ֹנות‬
.‫ט"ו ִב ְשבָ ט הִ ִגיעַ – חַ ג הָ ִאילָ ֹנות‬
,‫נִ ַטע ָכל הַ ר וָ גֶ בַ ע‬
:‫ ֶשבַ ע‬-‫ִמ ָדן וְ עַ ד ְבאֵּ ר‬
–‫וְ אַ ְרצֵּ נו שוב נִ ַירש‬
.‫אֶ ֶרץ זֵּית יִ ְצהָ ר ו ְדבַ ש‬
!‫ט"ו ִב ְשבָ ט הִ ִגיעַ – חַ ג הָ ִאילָ ֹנות‬
.‫ט"ו ִב ְשבָ ט הִ ִגיעַ – חַ ג הָ ִאילָ ֹנות‬
CAROBS - ‫חרוב‬
The Talmud (Taanit 23a) records the following story:
Choni was walking on the road and saw a man planting a
carob tree. He asked the man how long it would take for
the carob tree to begin bearing fruit? The man explained
to him that it would take 70 years. Choni asked the man
if he thought that he is healthy enough to live another 70
to see the fruits of his labor? The man replied that just as
his father planted carob trees for him, so too was he
planting the carob trees for his children.
Cut open the carob and check for insects before eating it.
12
‫בס"ד‬
THE FOURTH CUP - SUMMER
Fill the cup with only red wine
NEW FRUITS
Read the following Mishna (Berachot 6:4), then eat a fruit that has not been eaten
yet:
.‫ ְמבָ ֵּרְך עָ לָיו‬,‫ ִאם יֵּׁש בֵּ ינֵּיהֶ ם ִמ ִמין ִׁשבְ עָ ה‬:‫ְהּודה אוֹמֵּ ר‬
ָ ‫הָ יּו לְ פָ נָיו ִמינִים הַ ְרבֵּ ה ַרבִ י י‬
.‫ ְמבָ ֵּרְך עַ ל אֵּ יזֶה מֵּ הֶ ן ֶׁשי ְִרצֶ ה‬:‫וַ חֲ כ ִָמים או ְֹמ ִרים‬
If one has several varieties [of fruit] before him, Rabbi Yehuda says that if there is
among them something of the seven kinds for which Eretz Yisrael is noted, he
makes the blessing over that, but the Sages say that he may make the blessing over
any kind that he pleases.
After eating a new fruit which a blessing has not been recited over, say the
following:
‫יִלְ ְמדּון‬-‫ּגוֹי חֶ ֶרב וְ ֹלא‬-‫י ְִשאּו ּגוֹי אֶ ל‬-‫וְ כִ ְתתּו חַ ְרב ֵֹּתיהֶ ם לְ ִא ִתים וַ חֲ נִית ֵֹּתיהֶ ם לְ מַ זְ מֵּ רוֹת ֹלא‬
. ‫פִ י ה' ְצבָ קוֹת ִדבֵּ ר‬-‫ָׁשבּו ִאיׁש ַתחַ ת ּגַפְ נ ֹו וְ ַתחַ ת ְתאֵּ נָת ֹו וְ אֵּ ין מַ חֲ ִריד כִ י‬
ְ ‫ וְ י‬.‫עוֹד ִמלְ חָ מָ ה‬
‫ (מיכה‬.‫ֹלקינּו לְ ע ֹולָם וָ עֶ ד‬
ֵּ ֱ‫ה' א‬-‫ֹלקיו וַ אֲ נ ְַחנּו ֵּנלְֵּך בְ ֵּׁשם‬
ָ ֱ‫הָ עַ ִמים יֵּלְ כּו ִאיׁש בְ ֵּׁשם א‬-‫כִ י כָל‬
)‫ה‬-‫ג‬:‫ד‬
“...And they shall beat their swords into ploughs and their spears into pruning
hooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, not shall they learn war any
more. But they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree: and none
shall make them afraid. For the mouth of the Lord of Hosts has spoken it. For let all
people walk everyone in the name of his god, and we will walk in the name of the
Lord our G-d forever and ever. (Micha 4:3-5)
13
‫בס"ד‬
‫‪CONCLUSION‬‬
‫לשנה הבאה בירושלים הבנויה‬
‫לשנה טובה ומבורכת‬
‫!‪Next year in rebuilt Jerusalem‬‬
‫!‪May the year be fruitful and blessed‬‬
‫‪DRINK THE 4TH CUP OF WINE‬‬
‫ָּ ּברו ְּך ַא ּ ָּתה ה' א‪-‬להינ ּו ֶמלֶ ְך ָּהעולָּ ם ַעל‪:‬‬
‫‪on eating one of the 5 grains‬‬
‫‪on wine‬‬
‫‪on fruit of 7 Species‬‬
‫ַעל ַה ִמ ְחיָּה וְ ַעל ַה ַ ּכלְ ָּ ּכלָּ ה‪,‬‬
‫ַעל ַה ֶּגפֶ ן וְ ַעל ְּפ ִרי ַה ֶּגפֶ ן‪,‬‬
‫ַעל ָּהעץ וְ ַעל ְּפ ִרי ָּהעץ‪,‬‬
‫ית וְ ִהנְ ַחלְ ּ ָּת לַ אֲ בותינ ּו‬
‫ש ָּר ִצ ָּ‬
‫וְ ַעל ְּתנוּבַ ת ַה ּ ָּש ֶדה וְ ַעל ֶא ֶרץ ֶח ְמדָּּ ה טובָּ ה ו ְּר ָּחבָּ ה ֶ‬
‫ָּ‬
‫לֶ אכל ִמ ִּפ ְרי ָּּה וְ לִ ְשבּ ו ַע ִמ ּטוּבָּ ּה‪ַ ,‬רחם (נָּ א) ה' א‪-‬להינ ּו ַעל יִ ְש ָּראל ַע ּ ֶמך וְ ַעל‬
‫ך וְ ַעל היכָּ לֶ ָּ‬
‫ך וְ ַעל ִמזְ בְּ ֶח ָּ‬
‫ך וְ ַעל ִציּון ִמ ְש ַ ּכן כְּ בו ֶד ָּ‬
‫יר ָּ‬
‫ּשלַ יִ ם‬
‫ך‪ ,‬ו ְּבנה יְ רו ָּ‬
‫ּשלַ יִ ם ִע ֶ‬
‫יְ רו ָּ‬
‫ש ְּמחנ ּו בְּ ִבנְ יָּנָּ ּה וְ נאכַ ל ִמ ִּפ ְרי ּ ָּּה‬
‫ִעיר ַה ּק ֶדש בִּ ְמה ָּרה בְּ יָּמינ ּו וְ ַהעֲ לנ ּו לְ תוכָּ ּה וְ ַ‬
‫וְ נִ ְש ַ ּבע ִמ ּטוּבָּ ּה וּנְ בָּ ֶר ְכ ָּ‬
‫יה בִּ ְק ֻד ּ ָּשה ו ְּב ָּטהֳ ָּרה‪:‬‬
‫ך ָּעלֶ ָּ‬
‫(בשבת ‪ -‬ו ְּרצה וְ ַהחֲ לִ יצנ ּו בְּ יום ַה ּ ַש ָּ ּבת ַהזֶּה‪):‬‬
‫כִּ י ַא ּ ָּתה ה' טוב וּמ ִטיב לַ כּ ל וְ נו ֶדה לְ ָּ‬
‫ך ַעל ָּה ָּא ֶרץ וְ ַעל‪:‬‬
‫‪on eating one of the 5 grains‬‬
‫‪on wine‬‬
‫‪on fruit of 7 Species‬‬
‫ַה ִמ ְחיָּה‬
‫(וְ ַעל) ְּפ ִרי ַה ֶּגפֶ ן (בא"י גַ ְפנָּ ּה)‬
‫יה)‪:‬‬
‫(וְ ַעל) ַה ּפרות (בא"י ּפרו ֶת ָּ‬
‫ָּ ּברו ְּך ַא ּ ָּתה ה' ַעל ָּה ָּא ֶרץ וְ ַעל‪:‬‬
‫‪on eating one of the 5 grains‬‬
‫‪on wine‬‬
‫‪on fruit of 7 Species‬‬
‫ַה ִמ ְחיָּה‬
‫(וְ ַעל) ְּפ ִרי ַה ֶּגפֶ ן (בא"י גַ ְפנָּ ּה)‬
‫יה)‪:‬‬
‫(וְ ַעל) ַה ּפרות (בא"י ּפרו ֶת ָּ‬
‫‪Compiled by Daniel Cohen, World Mizrachi‬‬
‫‪With thanks to Jonah Simcha Chaim‬‬
‫‪14‬‬

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