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Cities of Peru
Map of Peru
Lima, Peru
  Capital City of Peru
  Largest city – population of
9 million
  Overlooks Pacific Ocean
  Home to 1/3 of country’s
Cathedral of Lima
Birth of Lima
  Location of present Lima originally controlled by
Incan Empire
  City itself founded by Spanish conquistador
Francisco Pizarro in 1535
  Originally called “La Ciudad de los Reyes” or
City of the Kings
  Was the capital of Spanish colonial Peru
(Virreinato del Peru)
Colonial Lima
  Became a center of trade in South America and
with Europe and Asia
  Faced dangers from pirates and earthquakes
  City walls constructed around city between 1684
and 1687
  Large earthquakes in 1687 and 1746 crippled city
and interrupted trade
  Peruvian War of Independence from 1809 to
1824 resulted in Lima as the capital of the
Republic of Peru
Lima in the Republic of Peru
  Independent Peru faced economic troubles
during its infancy until the 1850’s
  Chile occupied Lima from 1879-1883 during the
War of Pacific
  Post-war Lima had great growth and expansion
through the turn of the 20th Century
  Most of Lima destroyed by an earthquake in
1940 but rebuilt and has continued to grow since
Arequipa, Peru
  Second most populous city
in Peru
  Nicknamed “La Ciudad
Blanca” or the White City
because of white colored
“sillar” buildings
  Lies in the Andes
Mountains of southern Peru
Basilica Cathedral of Arequipa
Map of Peru
Birth of Arequipa
  Area of present city occupied by Aymara
natives during pre-1400’s
  Aymaras conquered by Incan Empire during 15th
  City founded in 1540 by Spaniard Garci Manuel
de Carbajal
  Name means “land behind the mountains”
Colonial Arequipa
  Remained somewhat
isolated because location
in Andes
  Agriculture was the main
economic activity,
including wine and olive oil
  City destroyed by
earthquake and volcanic
eruptions in 1600
Spanish Coat of Arms
Republican Arequipa
  Symbol of the revolution
that led to independence
  Became less isolated with
construction of railway in
  Became the economic
hub of southern Peru
  Rocked by earthquakes in
1868, 1958, 1960, and 2001
Juliaca, Peru
  Adjacent to Lake Titicaca, the largest lake in
South America
  Area originally occupied by Aymaras and
conquered by Incas in the 1400’s
  Founded in 1826 as part of the Republic of Peru,
became city in 1908
  Connected to rest of Peru in 1870 by rail
  Economy based on cattle, sheep, and other
Map of Peru
Cusco, Peru
  Historic capital of the Incan Empire
  Named “Historic Capital of Peru” by Peruvian
Ancient Cusco
  Killke occupied area from 900 to 1200 AD and
constructed a walled complex, Sacsayhuaman,
in 1100 AD
  The Incas arrived in the 1200s, claimed Cusco as
their capital
  City divided into four quadrants, one for each
quarter of the empire
  Spanish explorers invaded city in 1533
Colonial Cusco
  Francisco Pizarro arrives
after invasion and names
city “Very noble and great
city of Cusco”
  Served as a center for
colonization and helped
spread Christianity
  Economy was driven by
trade, agriculture, and
  Many churches and a
cathedral constructed
Cathedral of Santo Domingo
Republican Cuscuo
  Cusco Persisted as a
cultural and administrative
center in south-eastern
  An earthquake in 1950
destroyed more than a
third of the city
  Currently biggest tourist
destination in Peru
Machu Picchu, Peru
  “Lost city of the Incas”
  Considered one of the
New Seven Wonders of the
  Discovered in 1911 by
American Hiram Bingham
Map of Peru
Incan Machu Picchu
  Built around 1450 but abandoned in 1572 due to
Spanish invasion
  Many theories of its use:
  Estate of Incan emperor Pachacuti
  Built to control economy of conquered lands
  Prison for the worst criminals
  Agricultural testing station
  Ceremonial city of the gods, crowing ceremonies
Machu Picchu Discovered
  Only 80 km from Cusco but undiscovered by
  Therefore not destroyed or defaced like other
Incan locations
  Discovered in 1911 by Hiram Bingham of Yale
  Became increasingly popular as a tourist site
  Closed due to flooding in January 2010 but
reopened on February 28th
The End