`d !,odbr`cidrqtlld|u.eg`mhn|g6,qPd.

Transcription

`d !,odbr`cidrqtlld|u.eg`mhn|g6,qPd.
Power
Loss
The 1999 Ford Power Pianl Explosior:
A Study of Pfoblems Encountered
During Larg+Loss Frre InvesUgations
By Kim Mniszewski, Hal Lyson, and Crispin Hales
fi iIONDAY FEERUARY r, r9l)9, rn
th.
spLolion and 6E ripp.d
Moror Con'
asing rw.' plart ar lord 'nbu8h
pmy\ rmor rouge racility in Deaibori,
Mi.higatr, lillins sir civilians and injurhs
33, l4ordr.d$riodsr, ksurdngin xboutlr biron
in pmpenr &oige, d'e 6r B one or rhe mdr
Tnc unploree.d,
rhe laryat
humfqu..d ituunn.e tds of dr ltai
{5 onsi!,\' n'sNa
H.nry
Rous.'
'The
'hI p.i6t
Ford @.vdFd into wh* w on.c tu luga'
imuldring 6mpl* in wodd. covcing about
1,100 acg (ia6 hdaq), 'n
the plB! .Bplord ioc
than 100,000 popl. ar ic pak in th. 193&, uhd non
th€
oE shiFped up tne Roug. RiEr rut inb rhc f& y r
on. sd ald @c dt L\. otlB dd as es. In ih.
1990s, hoKq lold b.gd plrfting a ne Nonblt
slea b porcf the b.bo blown, whtch pmdued
hth volrn .ompBsed ak io [email protected] bl,sr turo6
turc,
ovdhad conv.yor Mdg! w$ L\c pultiid buildin&
.onbirirg 12 p'nwtd mitls, .th or,bi.h $nr pulver
ien orl b m dsociatcd cyr]m md ftln o thc
6[th lml bidg., wh.E ft. @t] w* augurd b sd
soas. buik6
L}c boillF. EE of lht boilds
'd 6 pd
pnid.d 1,250 pounis
squd inch sausc (Fig) (593
o ibs) hish p($urc {.d, whil. th. othq w pe
dred lem n about 300 F,g (ra3 niljbm). Th.
5e.l rolirg nins, dr. ruromobil. Nobly
plrn! m mf,irc plmq a 6m p1m! rd a rcolad d;
planq d w.I d L\. p(mr plmr.
In Nddbd 1993, tI. aub nuulactuH amouo..d
ln* dK l&iut\ Teyd old powr plat rculd bc
Eplaed by r n w lonegnwaa lacilirr o bc built md
ruo by CMS Eneqy Corpontion and DT! En.€y
Conpmy. Thc dgin'r powd pl,i built itr 1921, w6
norombuddc [email protected] @rced u
g6und Soor aEa of 30,374 squd l6t (4152 sqffi
ndds), ad indudcd lsGl dndd opmriond :16.
rcpaiatd !y wals, lHting snrlc "buildi!g!" wiL\in
drc or.iil sh.ba (se risur l). .A.mns rh6. 3r.rLr
b ddgr 16 $. boilrt hous building, luEd n th
6h oa ln. Ligd sructurc, and .he tulbo blNd
h
lding
rhc wen.
Th. s.n.n6. buildrnc
*a 61 ol
u* to rh.
of Lhc ghde building.
The boilcr building, paG oI shicb wdc rbout seEn
s6icr hiBh, hld sw6 boiLrs, €ch hpp.d by a snok.
skck. a! ci+th hoid uiid u .ish
ben lmd.d in th. carly 1960t Th. boilds prvided
s*
[email protected]!dbihe[fthfloqof.h!bol|sbsebyu
high
I! si*$ory p.K plmt 8afrEd d&dd powd
rnd prdsuriad an for tI. 6npld\ blas. tunrs
h
boik! buildiDg. dd L\e eLdi.n building
p6un boilq
@d, wirh i6 ow
!,odbr'cidrqtlld|u.eg'mhn|g6,qPd.
wiz.d @l AI lh. boild
had
irunl gs.nBt ,s!irid!
I
:.
ardplhried'Luldrdw.UrmolDou cdcl(rD
(iic prt.ipihrd. rnd retrpflative ilr hrh$ nq
Bo,ltr 6
rl( llw
platras
nerd un', M!
d,e
uiit
stillinq n{o dro, bdtr tube trni had rhc hrg$l
.:pa.itr or dL ssru boildr i'r dre .o np e! uid r
dsisn pE${. oi r,i?i p,i3 1t30 Dii[u!) xi i
.onthuo6 ligllPtsufe ncN orr,r d
'lrinNn
500 000 potrndi/r,o,f 1220 73: kilosm'nr,/hou, )
Frk iilr: ir !"r r rdaisul{ bu aUotrL 136 r.d1{I
mor
rlr Lonli Combultior in the odo{d 5Pa( qdld [.
Hk' .hn flord rhrough th.
rhe wrcr wrLi rrrcd
ndssl l!gl\
hdrgins aron
o oshed
qTa .f lid ruld L! std Jone or in onbudion rne
ig[ibr rn,t pild5 *r ftlrd wirh miril ss, wl]d, {d
dlt gi(gs. ffLinF
.onrml adiu$tu
inl [email protected] i! r .onMl
moD, lu,nud
qniol
d{b.k
r.r
tlpnany ondEt d o!.e der-! rm
siit v$ ) o,shr dor iG d:ftnme
ibou( .v.q rcu Blil.i 6 \Jr 1ii itr!|dln in May
1993 Nd n6 ssuld i hcre.
IDspcdios
F$i
ud
L\c
neL n,
Boire, li
{qc i,odilled
so
rhr6orits
Ll
r'u'n$
'ft
Ib .ontrol
dr IHtrN .fe.
of rhc
<,ol,[email protected]
grd
llrhanlonLu G*
lowq lhaor'd i'ro whicn hcdcd d; loi.oib.smn
ronrd Alter hor Auc sa56 ldrc tltr s?y uP
rdrr risqs wc( r0 ildH (r5 drincrEln djmrcr
oud i{rci r]t} tc b ih. moud !!vc d
ur
ar rh. sr
ptrsd rhn,u+
eld!$ati. p(lipihton !L(h
'he chrsc b in! dur pfli.L. m
inpa&d m drtdomi.
nlks
drry
gas$ allowirg de dr and 3
oui to pmvidc dan clDsiod to the.hjoNy .(d
dr lle
ljg
orisiDrl, Boild 6 ws dsisnld b Ne P verki q,r
..rc orD p, and Lld fumrcc 96. viLI * buNtr n
IMt ad butuc Ln $! 0.r oD dr
FF ri$ m
'lr
ihu' !t of fne sndri
r..i Thc rd;] v1nd] lis 'ix
'lt
rlro
.h.
gh
lo$r
r, rcn f4du1 Au u 6NDq
3
burr
on sdr idr dl trboih Allrhru
rigure 1)
cxtrdld b I
(20 adin!.nl n d,@etrr r
drtr drnkii nn
lLrNaL!nv. o( thc dirJ Houi linm 'h.r
urr b 6 ir.h6 (r5 cmtiDdosrur
b d'c bqld or Lft on ed w*t sidb of dE ftd,on
ft! ;oe
Lad
L0
i!!h
.qrdd{l m{'u! vi!!!
*hi.n'Lhtkj rtr loatd
(2i
FoDd lddn abolt
pdnilc s6 rlNr o[ ddn]s oaiDtr6re OD th.
[q]i drdr wis rn 3;d, (20 a m.cn roDud
'h!d
ni!( D!* to rln h {d i flu. ss$glrhc tn* had
oD Ue
tor ?
i1r,u NykD
li , ,h
!r!
rlr dnrd {oor
rln( bunqr o!
bdow
ltd
ro
opposn.
rda or
F4F3b|iaddu|bqhd€Fmm'[email protected]@
rh. boilcr te FislR 2) 11B. su ccd lio$ €ach had a
oanud plug valv. md a pn.umadcaly .ontrot.d bor
c!a), vlrq dc adabN for which wde agrndcd bt
m .oturds T]Ic 6nro[.sj dsigmEd d $c a*
md rh. wai, 4llaEd thc thE bur
rh. bdld a.d wd. 5itu*ed in dre n ns 6 conrol rcon
d thc drnd Eoo. They us.n a 30.psj3 04 oilibd air
$ppry ro.onml rhe
05<n.imcErt feed
'rn.6.id
lin6 o. tnc 6. and {er
sidd ofrtr b(rsr $oups.
natsial and gcn ntor lube oJ sylcsj rprBdins 6
rhe nonhesr .ond ol rht Frtipitab o! dr. rcol ol
rhe building Thc ncrrr p4.rs of rhe bridge ro fie pd
rcria bundnrg * rhc northus. .omd oI ihe
PowJMs.Newl]'.*[email protected]&!ix'|[od'
?nda l;. rh.4 a insccratandi
buildng a.dEEd rnc builditrg,s spri*]trs.
h dr tubo boi4 bu'ldtr'g, idkr Maarm brcr.
rcr ol rh. gl,5 windm a dtbkd drir ffbr f.dle
p;
30 incha (76 cnrjncdsl in diam*er rnd a .o:r
mary an
12 n,.h6 p0 <!ri(der) in di3ft'e.
rrt
one the firrs had b€en .xtusukhed and lne karch
ad rerue ratu tuished rounng $e racihy ror vi.
dm, rne inkrigadon inro th. btdr. ro o+ing dre
fgifiEbdra
qurrFrmile
rilofd.s)
(0.4
inio rhc
sty abo!. rh. pov{ho*. The exprosion sho{.!cd
dcbrtu ovcr a rrrge area, bloei,tg .r $iodo$ n GA
parked nearby aDd cutrin8 po*! @ drc en.E fa.iliq,
a rlr poftr pLnLt ,rdos lelcnt dooq
en. ara of rhe .ofrposne bn.k Nans Hea9,
irrany
and
.onderdlol pmeL blou inb
rhe an dilr
delblo.l valLofabcrerroom a
e{eNi!.
$
tne g1*s
The dplosioD
a]so blcw all rIle
*jrdorr
and
tubl
mdhnon buws olr ol dr. norLrr lidc or fic pows
hou.c md dehot d a 20 bt 0.1oot (6 by d Ect!)
$.'i.o of bri.l {rll oo ln! 6ln\'!oor Fire d snol.
w.rc ahowins in dli3 aEa wh.n dre 6
rke]$Fdg|lhre'€siiharwnd{Aiodr!
&ncRror builling and ignir.d dt
Giv€n rh. onpldny oI dtr [email protected] and n\c an. of
dmg.d m4 a jojft iDcrigrift cm I.pu.turx an
imm6 w* rdocd uith fte imdr ro 8tu rhm d rqul
olPorturoty b qtuc dc ryid..c {hit. asidiog @n
d(@r nv$risituG. hricipa g6rdndudd
Expoctu, r(MC Elbirr, Kaplm, Mind & Cn6!, wn
rod Barq trnsinems,'niodyn., ntc, Cfftdid dd
conpu/, ud Rink6 Enginedng. Pubtc kdor pdo
Mi.ite D€pahd'
whdoK in d. dElnrl ara, whi.I
honstd o$d :id eldn,l $ii.hs.ai shturi.d, md
.qu( dri,,s !!,rL ftou dE ori!! .ooE landrd m
rhc cl.cFical buiLling s rco! d wn d L\r gsurd
Mcr oI
suddhs d wA on, ddalr fu 4* a*r4'4 ktui
.oilusibk tufins
of cotuofu lidunry Pror..jo!.
T1]. Unncd Auro Worhs (LIAwl ss alld
A nmomdun or urdcediDs lMou)
dmied,
shddg lnar r ptub.ol ,old b. d.rlop€d ior'as
rhe hc!
rinring prods and Lbn lEdling ud Etud phFiqr
€vider fmn th. sne Md b hayc Frmi$ion or thc
dair in osulEtion wi$ [email protected]@d [email protected],
ffr
q6ord
pdio
M*shir Thl Mou ar5o
prchibited invedsatos ftm di$rhbling pb,sir.l .vi.
&nr. .x.cF i! rofrpli,De wirh rh. ollmne s
pDnols Thsc plddol, d.vdop.d tbi ach dpd oI
larly rh.
Da$om
th!ilE'jsatio!'lrbwdthcDwqrig*qsbulhindc
orchsios hrd otr dE; plaoi,l otdrfldioa.
pcDdrot
;,i , , Ll{
!d
nr }!i itrd !,rl
.itrd
oltrd
$5
bu,ld;sr
inrL !,1.nid !!n (DcL-i tt, fo'wd b vno!
coti,1rosftli lhddailed
pl,i,uirn( risa,5. {deoup€ ord noti {inga
rrid l*!d otr r rc r,r iryt .oluD$ t, ddir cd, rer
ul iL$r.n!i r,i .d!4rook lboutfou!!$rdr
i,GLl' d.{m. r,hr
uri',s
1,,
i
rE troa bdida'
r)a1,u. inv*rig*o6lourd rrEr su.h
rl,ia' xppila.h to s5c
Ll(
ni.
ui5|llituiro$(
I he inroont or
I [0r] pl$bgirir, i5
5U0000 p?g.s orrn$
3
siddr.
'tui.kly
lrud ol ltdeohpe, ind
DilkiLdg rLo$ iLem h
of rh. preLjNimry r!lo( *drt shded equally
tuno|g rLE FluF Saf&lu Go!, Lo { hout
uDpLqccs r\r lor rleNd o -tLrtr. uodi lnc
ii
rlL
uni
ngrtior Ms r.llu!d.wr: ?trd many ordr suLpr
L{rc !d r.wd,o pr1nipr. i,i or Donnolh.,nrr
dnoush rh!
fadlq ud @!d(td
dfLL own
$ur.
lnnuoddt oLltrtoin irv$trgil'!. arks pavcd
Tl!( i.vadgrtrr rr?m h.rd \r.lily n tosr b dii sr
Dcx $dr
d'( p,.gL$s oL ,L! $!Ik ud &D Ior
'Lrc
qri.ip J, -,
Cryo sc aunlu quidir! orc"iJq(
iLrdcplod.q r d,r ndbdnn {r hi, cd ro idd ir nfl\
nor dmobDirrr. oLd tr?Drot Ll! c"iJ.LG r
cr
{ajr.tptiar ctord'ulu! Dqr qri 'idl
u3 Enelluf.us .vdn'r dr dnn ,
Ll& hpkdd r'oild loi, 6D ro Lrotom hairs En
lDtrolr,dLdjNiLr qd' !B rp-il( equ pmcn,
d
boil4 proF,trrs rrN\nno dr
s
'1,!
coi {s
a
[email protected] mi 5jk ri,q,
d!
rr
tu*,,-.
berN md ar&hcd r, wal5 a urlLlarion aid 6rt blo.k
ug. oda phr3iGLhrds iodudcd oj$u3 lodr gits
.ollap{d wnLs ard dljryr, ryqhqd JcL!5. dLd dd(
A5 p?i' or dr!
D\s'isdbL pilrduL6 Pini.Lpda
builtLij]g'
dt.onk}[email protected]
K!,qrq
atrd djc
rrdldi'rg
Pd\dnfl
buiLding
hrd
rgnd 6.n .^rry Dd .er riL rlr sir. .o m1 ofin
l lLcr lld ro flrd in kr$ or d L.d, ire. arrrg i
b
porriu.
ddLo
a
ponabh s6 DoDno
s(fudbradd'bdol'h.Fod9ftlyaatr
n{n pftdrll pba.rr equpn.ft n$ ardELLr
rcqdrc,l
Lo
wa sub5biid looscl 9c pdtd,or,
HED| c'
har ludki hdfm spnahs
[rx
dd
.otror
g
o{s ?id
tdgd. lw.k .oEd!,
Lotheha)dhtsotrdof
ha,d
NittL
,
!
ordigdotr
b-ds
th'oushot rh. boil.r hosc hy MnlLisd, oSH-{
lulOSHAl nd oth{ iorlljs*os tr.:l.n dxr
n lnae reDdarr drlosio^5 oLJ ['.s.
,{dD(sl, pd d,t wd pipe splin}.lq rstd in $D.
Iado'
qpLoJor dm,gc DcBr.d dr.n.fi(L Th.
rit drldgc
liribll
on
M
xr
dr
south cDd or
8.ih
mo*r((
6 on Lhe
!rr-{lr"o. bhr od $,. J-iigc Thele$r du
is.d au *r rhr {uibo blonrr btrildiry
n6r
2
E
g
Ca!!e
r
?d conrrrbdiig
fhe bo'rn
ne
ra.tore
.|l)ro'oi ofurtd 4 mr;mrrre vortfl. i
hr
quror
rArgr
trDe
rLi.LruL(d rh. tone,\
1.rhr1i NrqrD
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Th. MIoSIIA q'r otrdudld riklrrcd tidoi
oDtriLucd ro rh. iNid.!, Arrr:I rhar \oc.tr lrlr
o, op,d,ns,sr rr od rdrcacs n{ ir{to.L Ll,3L
would havc prE,rcd DaGt gr ltM iDb rtr luDrr
ocedurcs ror
slurils.to*L dd Lld*jn(
dnotra
dil,o\
trdl Lr
r.l
ucohus
ot
ad
oigenlioftl ptori,q
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and
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or
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to!no
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klr .{as
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td LJe i
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rh.
Eukus.vLoror K{.d t]!n,\ rtjd bd gd$ rttu
dedd qEr dN lloud, Imn $. i(uolLmn hr {;
r
ntu lor ltgl'rl,rd^cd ad rpe.i:tizd brts
!,
[email protected]:br ombrd rhn,gh dr q.tu [email protected] farilir, ,5
kml U\ Jo u 0!n[n]o<| ioo| d llty LU'L
do,n$t.lRUc{ij,soad F,l,hrLirjcitl 6h
Monm bd,! .he qplft4 r, cafroLi ii ;he qu,or
rcD
rkr!
'hn
r trrnn LsgoT!ia,j,tr :il
urrraLg:r bun How4c, rhc mrrlnfuL,t
stu rtq
or orr d rh.
lx'b on rtu rond r,J .hid nii \
s$
'.d and gas [h{d ntro rl[ bo]t(
hrd Dor [email protected] dded.
huqlr
df dru sq .;tud sas [m$ ]n*iry {idr !; fiou r ]
!!tuo $ lur$ co,murilnloo
hmd/lnd dr
ri!
LmP.i(5
rr
a
,!l , lduriois iutv.n dorld : s br alto$rd b @
trr t or no'LLoi. ;ttr i.$ 0a tt(r wim4k!
[email protected] !d D{h!
! ,r, ,e! be $u i o.onor $ tft d*lop.d
otrri,
p'!.c$,
rn:in Ene or tu nrrd qa liR n u
'he drf t
m r uned
he +{r0 1 u qrs rhr Lrnrtl
cs.n
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tr
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$,
hrd b
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id eed
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, di foLoirflr rhid h. nksr:d niLL {;;iis
ebrc ft rr! ar. arrtrd tlha.hsrn6cam
,hurd h. s-. ,!,. L.' @Ddult i.. o*! p;lliniry i,,",i
qENd dd pio'oe$ dr &Dq rmo!. dcbr n. dd
I
of rhis
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or
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rhe
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Th.,|ci6.LrsorqlLdNeDug|bdi(D\tdd
!y, .ontr't dld Th. Mi(s rad;,s b rht Loil$ stud
7d!tu4 Nik!,L('/D(.rL{2000 Nri{{,
i ! Prnedoo f,$o.nl o r. Nna e2r, r:]? @l&lroro1
run{ada!, 19,)r, t1r0t atir,oE pol4
.i!?rrr
r
dordgj od
rmi ulNcdudlqthk pt.rd wi5 tub{}
turquL,hoN.rrcpLngr[q!d .oiribdtrFbLt!o?
hld' RqE. P'vqh[e'ldDll r3,,i \fA s5n Ir
/btrnlr/i irrr cdtui{/br!. !e6 cdiDn s!ou5
fuk (1Nd rPorn oirDd rdr m*Par{s a
rcn(m$er.,
md uAviFddl,, ,rReDil
lioudd6tdlLrtcd $N jl rh.itrdjg?tio]j 0i;
rrms or.€anrdur, hut d'.! Gl( dx q: hD irDi.!
rn
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nFLlodLr rrnou!lL rhc
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